Cardiogramme Echographie Salle d'opération Salle d'opération
Logo   Accueil | Table des matières | Téléchargements | Liens |   Mentions légales   | Contact |Abréviations
Logo  

Bibliographie

Lectures conseillées

CROSS J, Guest Editor. Pediatric cardiac anesthesia. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001 ; 5(1) :2-146
HONJO O, Van ARSDELL GS. Cardiovascular procedures : surgical considerations. In : BISSONNETTE B, edit. Pediatric anesthesia. Basic principles, State of the art, Future. Shelton (CO): People’s Medical Publishing House (USA), 1589-608
LAKE CL, BOOKE PD, eds. Pediatric cardiac anesthesia, 4th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005
LEYVI G, WASNICK JD. Single-ventricle patient: pathophysiology and anesthetic management. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2010; 24:121-30
POUARD P, MAURIAT P, LABORDE N, BOURDARIAS B. Cicrulation extracorporelle en chirurgie cardiaque pédiatrique chez le nouveau-né, le nourrisson et l’enfant. In: JANVIER G, LEHOT JJ, eds. Circulation extracorporelle: principes et pratique, 2ème édition. Paris: Arnette (Groupe Liaison SA) 2004, 481-506
STAYER SA, RUSSELL IA, MOSSAD EB, ANDROPOULOS DB. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease, 2nd edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 656 p

 

Références

1 AGGARWAL NK, DAS SN, SHARMA G, et al. Efficacy of combined modified and conventional ultrafiltration during cardiac surgery in children. Ann Card Anaesth 2007 ; 10 :27-33
2 AGOUSTIDES JG, WEISS SJ, WEINER J, et al. Diagnosis of patent foramen ovale with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in adult cardiac surgical patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004; 18:725-30
3 AKINTURK H, MICHEL-BEHNKE I, VALESKE K, et al. Hybrid transcatheter-surgical palliation : basis for univentricular or biventricular repair : the Giessen experience. Pediatr Cardiol 2007 ; 28 :79-87
4 ALTHOFF TF, KNEBEL P, PANDA A, et al. Long-term follow-up of a fenestrated Amplatzer atrial septal occluder in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest 2008; 133:283-5
5 ALTMAN DI, YOUNG RSK, YAGEL SK. Effects of dexamethasone in hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the neonatal rat. Biol Neonate 1984:46:149
6 AMARK KM, KARAMLOU T, O’CAROLL A, et al. Independent factors associated with mortality, reintervention, and achievement of complete repair in children with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006 ; 47 :1448-56
7 AMIN Z, HIJAZI ZM, BASS JL, et al. Erosion of Amplatzer septal occluder device after closure of secundum atrial septal defects : review of registry of complications and recommendations to minimize future risk. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2004 ; 63 :496-502
8 AMMASH NA, CONNOLLY HM, ABEL MD, WARNES CA. Noncardiac surgery in Eisenmenger syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 33:222-7
9 ANDERSON PAW. Immature myocardium. In: Moller JH, Neal WA (eds). Fetal and Infant cardiac disease. Norwalk, CT:Appleton & Lange, 1990, 35-71.
10 ANDROPOULOS DA. Anesthetic agents and their cardiovascular effects. In: ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 49-63
11 ANDROPOULOS DA. Heart and lung transplantation : anesthetic considerations. In : BISSONNETTE B, edit. Pediatric anesthesia. Basic principles, State of the art, Future. Shelton (CO): People’s Medical Publishing House (USA), 1792-806
12 ANDROPOULOS DB, AYRES NA, STAYER SA, et al. The effect of transesophageal echocardiography on ventilation in small infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2000;90:47-9
13 ANDROPOULOS DA, BENT ST, SKJONSBY B, et al. The optimal length of insertion of central venous catheters for pediatric patients. Anesth Analg 2001; 93: 883-6
14 ANDROPOULOS DA, STAYER SA, BENT ST. A controlled study of transesophageal echocardiography to guide central venous catheter placement in congenital heart surgery patients. Anesth Analg 1999; 89:65-70
15 ANDROPOULOS DA, STAYER SA, DIAZ LK, et al. Neurological monitoring for congenital heart surgery. Anesth Analg 2004; 99:1365-75
16 AOKI M, NORMURA F, STROMSKI ME, et al. Effects of pH on brain energetics after hypothermic circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 55:1093-1103
17 ASHBUM DA, BLACKSTONE EH, WELLS WJ, et al. Determinants of mortality and type of repair in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004 ; 127 :1000-7
18 BAELE PL, RENNOTTE TE, VEYCKERMANS FA. External compression of the abdominal aorta reversing tetralogy of Fallot cyanotic crisis. Anesthesiology 1991; 75:146-149
19 BALAJI S, GEWILLIG M, BULL C, et al. Arrhythmias after Fontan procedure: comparison of total cavopulmonary connection to atriopulmonary connection. Circulation 1991; 84(Suppl III):162-7
20 BARNEA O, SANTAMORE WP, ROSSI A, et al. Estimation of oxygen delivery in newborns with a univentricular circulation, Circulation 1998; 98:1407-13
21 BAUM VC, PALMISANO BW. The immature heart and anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:1529-48
22 BAUMGARTNER H, BONHOEFFER P, DE GROOT NMS, et al. ESC Guidelines for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease (new version 2010). Eur Heart J 2010; 31:2915-57
23 BELLINGER DC, WERNOWSKY G, RAPPAPORT LA, et al. Cognitive developpment of children following early repair of transposition of the great arteries using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Pediatrics 1991 ; 87:701-7
24 BELLINGER DC, WYPIJ D, DU PLESSIS AJ, et al. Developmental and neurologic effects of alpha-stat versus pH-stat strategies for deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 121:374-83
25 BELLINGER DC, WYPIJ D, KUBAN KC, et al. Developmental and neurologic status of children at 4 years of age after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation 1999; 100: 526-32
26 BENT ST. Anesthesia for left-to-right shunt lesions. In : ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 297-327
27 BERMAN W, FRIPP RR, RUBLER M, et al. Hemodynamic effects of ketamine in children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Pediatr Cardiol 1990; 11:72-6
28 BETTEX D, CHASSOT PG. Transesophageal echocardiography in congenital heart disease. In: BISSONNETTE B, edit. Pediatric anesthesia. Basic principles, State of the art, Future. Shelton (CO): People’s Medical Publishing House (USA), 1186-1212
29 BETTEX DA, PRETRE R, JENNI R, SCHMID ER: Cost effectiveness of routine intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in pediatric cardiac surgery: a ten-year experience. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:1271-5
30 BETTEX DA, SCHMIDLIN D, BERNATH MA, PRETRE R, HURNI M, CHASSOT PG. Intraoperative trasnesophageal echocardiography in pediatric congenital heart surgery: A two-center observational study. Anesth Analg 2003; 97:1275-82
31 BEUSCH M, LENZ G, KOTTLER B. Arterial to end-tidal CO2 gradients in infants and children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease during cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1990; 4:S128
32 BISHOP A. Coronary artery anomalies. In: REDINGTON A, et al. ed. Congenital heart disease in adults. A practical guide. London, WB Saunders Co Ltd, 1994, pp 153-60
33 BISSONNETTE B, HOLTBY HM, PUA DAJ, et al. Cerebral hyperthermia in children after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:611-8
34 BLAISE G, LANGLEBEN D, HUBERT B. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pathophysiology and anesthetic approach. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:1415-32
35 BOHN D. Anomalies of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary circulation. In: Lake CL. Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, 2nd edition, Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, 1993, 295-323
36 BOJAN M, GIOANNI S, MAURAT P, POUARD P. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and short-term outcome in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery : a propensity score analysis. Crit Care 2011 ; 15 :R259
37 BOLTZ MG, HAMMER GB. Regional anesthesia and postoperative pain management. In : ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 283-93
38 BOTERO M, DAVIES LK. Diagnosis and management of arrhytmias in children after cardiac surgery. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001 ; 5 : 122-33
39 BOUCEK MM, AURORA F, EDWARDS LB, et al. Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: tenth official pediatric heart transplantation report - 2007. J Heart Lung Transplant 2007; 26:796-807
40 BRICKNER EM, HILLIS LD, LANGE RA. Congenital heart disease in adults. First of two parts. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:1-12
41 BROWN JW, RUZMETOV M, OKADA Y, et al. Truncus arteriosus repair : outcomes, risk factors, reoperation and managment. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001 ; 20 :221-7
42 BUNDTS W, VAN PELT N, GILLYNS H, et al. Residual pulmonary vasoreactivity to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe obstructive pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. Heart 2001; 86:553-9
43 BURROWS FA. Physiologic dead space, venous admixture, and the arterial end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 1989; 70:219-25
44 CALDARONE CA, BENSON L, HOLTBY H, et al. Initial experience with hybrid palliation for neonates with single-ventricle physiology. Ann Thorac Surg 2007 ; 84 :1294-300
45 CARMOSINO MJ, FRIESEN RH, DORAN A, IVY DD : Perioperative complications in chidren with pulmonary hypertension undergoing noncardiac surgery or cardiac catheterization. Anesth Analg 2007 ; 104 :521-7
46 CASSORLA L. Preoperative evaluation and preparation : A physiologic approach. In : ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 175-96
47 Castaneda AR, Jonas RA, Mayer JE, Hanley FL. Cardiac Surgery of the Neonate and Infant. Philadelphia:WB Saunders, 1994, 23
48 CASTANEDA AR, NORWOOD WI, JONES RA, et al. Transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular system : Anatomical repair in the neonate. Ann Thorac Surg 1984 ; 38 :440
49 CEITHAML EL, PUJA FJ, DANIELSON GK, et al. Results of the Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure for transposition of the great arteries and for double outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg 1984 ; 38 :435
50 CERRO MJ, ABMAN S, DIAZ G, et al. A consensus approach to the classification of pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular diasease : report from the PVRI Pediatric Taskforce, Panama 2011. Pulm Circ 2011 ; 1 :286-98
51 CHANG A, ATZ A, WERNOVSKY G, et al. Milrinone: Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic effects in neonates after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med 1995; 23:1907-14
52 CHARGIO JR, . J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000 ; 120 :73-80
53 CHARRETTE KA, DAVIES RR, CHEN JM, et al. Pediatric perfusion techniques for complex congenital cardiac surgery. In : MONGERO LB, BECK JR. On bypass. Advanced perfusion techniques. Totowa (NJ, USA) :Humana Press 2010, 29-58
54 CHASSOT PG. Anesthésie en chirurgie cardiaque. In: Ecoffey C, Hamza J, Meistelman C. Anesthésiologie pédiatrique. Paris: Flammarion, 1997, 183-202
55 CHASSOT PG, BETTEX DA. Anesthesia and adult congenital heart disease. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20:414-37
56 CHASSOT PG, BETTEX D. Perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography in adult congenital heart disease. In: POELAERT J, SKARVAN K. Transoesophageal echocardiography in anaesthesia. London, BMJ Book, 2004
57 CHATURVEDI RR, SHORE DF, LINCOLN C, et al. Acute right ventricular restrictive physiology after repair of tetralogy of Fallot : association with myocardial injury and oxidative stress. Ciculation 1999; 100:1540-7
58 CHECCHIA PA, BRONICKI RA, GOLDSTEIN B. Review of inhaled nitric oxide in the pediatric cardiac surgery stting. Pediatr Cardiol 2012; 33:493-505
59 CHEITLIN MD, ARMSTRONG WF, AURIGEMMA GP, et al. ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 Guidelines update for the clinical application of echocardiography: Summary article. Circulation 2003; 108:1146-62
60 CHESSA M, CARMINATI M, BUTERA G, et al. Early and late complications associated with transcatheter occlusion of secundum atrial septal defect. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 39:1061-5
61 CHEW MS, BRIX-CHRISTENSEN V, RAVN HB, et al. Effect of modified ultrafiltration on the inflammatory response in paediatric open-heart surgery: a prospective, randomized study. Perfusion 2002; 17:327-33
62 CHIN C, NAFTEL D, PAHL E, et al. Cardiac re-transplantation in pediatrics: a multi-institutional study. J Heart Lung Transplant 2006; 25:1420-4
63 CLARIZIA NA, MANLHIOT C, SCHWARTZ SM, et al. Improved outcomes associated with intraoperative steroid use un high-risk pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2011 ; 91 :1222-7
64 CLARK JB, PAULIKS LB, MYERS JL, et al. Mechanical circulatory support for end-stage heart failure in repaired and palliated congenital heart disease. Curr Cardiol Rev 2011 ; 7 :102-9
65 CLARKE WR. Anesthetic care of the infant with abnormal transitional circulation. Problems in Anesthesia 1988; 2:477-89
66 COLMAN JM. Noncardiac surgery in adult congenital heart disease. In: GATZOULIS MA, et al, Eds. Diagnosis and management of adult congenital heart disease. Edinburgh, Churchill-Livingstone, 2003, 99-104
67 CONNELLY MS, ROBERTSON P, LIU P, et al. Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries in adults: Natural history. Circulation 1994; 90:I-51
68 CREMONA D, DINH XUANGAT, HIGGENBOTHAM T. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the pulmonary circulation. Lung, 1991; 169:185-202
69 CROUGHWELL N, SMITH LR, QUILL T, et al. The effect of temperature on cerebral metabolism and blood flow in adults during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1992; 103:549-54
70 DANIELS SR. Epidemiology. In: LONG WA. Fetal and neonatal cardiology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1990, 430
71 DAVIES LK. Cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children: How it is different ? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999; 13:330-45
72 DAVIS PJ, WILSON S, SIEVERS RD, et al. The effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on remifentanil kinetics in children undergoing atrial septal defect repair. Anesth Analg 1999; 89:904-8
73 DETTER C, FISCHLEIN T, FELDMEIER C, et al. Aortic valvotomy for congenital valvular aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 715:1564-71
74 DIDONATO RM, JONAS RA, LANG P, ROWE JJ, CASTANEDA AR. Neonatal repair of tetralogy of Fallot with and without pulmonary atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991; 101:126-37
75 DINARDO JA. Con : Extubation in the operating room following pediatric cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011 ; 25 :877-9
76 DINH XUAN AT, HIGGENBOTHAM TW, CLELLAND CA, et al. Impairment of endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation in chronic obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1539-47
77 DISSESSA TG, CHILD JS, PERLOFF JK, et al. Systemic venous and pulmonary arterial flow patterns after Fontan’s procedure for tricuspid atresia or single ventricle. Circulation 1984; 70:898-902
78 DONMEZ A, KAYA H, HABERAL A, et al. The effects of etomidate induction on plasma cortisol levels in children undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1998; 12:182-5
79 DONMEZ A, KIZILKAN A, BERKSUN H, et al. One center’s experience with remifentanil infusions for pediatric cardiac catheterization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001; 15:736-9
80 DUNCAN BW. Mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with cardiac disease. Ann Thorac Surg 2002 ; 73 :1670-7
81 DU PLESSIS AJ. Neurologic complications of cardiac disease in the newborn. Clin Perinatol 1997; 24:807-26
82 DU PLESSIS AJ, JONAS RA, WYPIJ D. Perioperative effects of a-stat versus pH-stat strategies for deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114:990-1001
83 DUPUIS C, KACHANER J, FREEDOM R, PAYOT M, DAVIGNON A. Cardiologie pédiatrique, 2ème édition. Paris: Flammarion, 1991, 115-123
84 DUPUIS C, KACHANER J, FREEDOM R, PAYOT M, DAVIGNON A. Cardiologie pédiatrique, 2ème édition. Paris, Flammarion, 1991, pp 137-42
85 EAGLE SS, DAVES SM. The adult with Fontan physiology: systematic approach to perioperative management for noncardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011; 25:320-34
86 EBERT TJ, MUZI M. Sympathetic hyperactivity during desflurane anesthesia in healthy volunteers: a comparison with isoflurane. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:444-53
87 FAKLER U, PAULI C, BAILING G, et al. Cardiac index monitoring by pulse contour analysis and thermodilution after pediatric cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007 ; 133 :224-8
88 FALKE K, ROSSAINT R, PISON U, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide selctively reduces pulmonary hypertension in severe ARDS and improves gaz exchange as well as right heart ejection fraction. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 143 (suppl):A248
89 FALLON P, APARICIO JM, ELLIOTT MJ, et al. Incidence of neurological complications of surgery for congenital heart disease. Arch Dis Child 1995; 72:418-22
90 FINEMAN JR, SOIFER SJ, HEYMANN MA. Regulation of pulmonary vascular tone in the perinatal period. Annu Rev Physiol 1995; 57:115-34
91 FINKEL JC, BOLTZ MG, CONRAM AM. Hemodynamic changes during spinal anesthesiain children undergoing open heart surgery.Anesth Analg 1998; 86:S400
92 FISCHER A, BENEDICT CR. Adult coarctation of the aorta: anesthesia and postoperative management. Anaesthesia 1977; 32:533-8
93 FISCHER LG, VAN HAKEN H, BÜRKLE H. Management of pulmonary hypertension: Physiological and pharmacological considerations for anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:1603-16
94 Fletcher R. The relationship between the arterial to end-tidal PCO2 differences and hemoglobin saturation in patients with congenital heart disease. Anesthesiology 1991, 75:210-6
95 FLICK RP, SPRUNG J, HARRISON TE, et al. Perioperative cardiac arrests in children between 1988 and 2005 at a tertiary referral center. Anesthesiology 2007; 106:226-37
96 FONTAN F, KIRKLIN JW, FERNANDEZ G, et al. Outcome after a “perfect” Fontan operation. Circulation 1990; 81:1520-36
97 FORMIGARI R, TOSCANO A, GIARDINI A, et al. Prevalence and predictors of neoaortic regurgitation after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. J Thorac cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126:1753-9
98 FRATTACCI M, FROSTELL C, CHEN TY, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide. A selective vasodilator of heparin-protamine vasoconstriction in sheep. Anesthesiology 1991, 75:990-9
99 FRIEDMAN WF. Aortic stenosis. In: EMMANOULIDES GC, ed. Moss and Adam’s heart disease in infants, children and adolescents including fetus and young adult. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins 1995, p 1087
100 FRIGIOLA A, RANUCCI M, CARLUCCI C, et al. The Ross procedure in adults: long-term follow-up and echocardiographic changes leading to pulmonary autograft reoperation. Ann Thorac Surg 2008; 86:482-9
101 FROSTELL C, BLOMQVIST H, HEDENSTIERNA G, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide selectively reverse human hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction without causing systemic vasodilatation. Anesthesiology 1993; 78:427-35
102 FYFE DA, KLINE CH, SADE RM, GREENE CA, GILETTE PC. The utility of transesophageal echocardiography during and after Fontan operations in small children. Am Heart J 1991; 122:1403-15
103 FYFE DA, RITTER SB, SNIDER AR, et al. Guidelines for transesophageal echocardiography in children. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1992; 5:640-4
104 GACA JA, DOUGLAS WI, BARNES SD. Anesthetic implications of the Fontan procedure for single ventricle physiology. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001 ; 5 :31-9
105 GALLE N, HOEPER MM, HUMBERT M, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Eur Heart J 2009; 30:2493-537
106 GATZOULIS MA, BALAJI S, WEBBER SA, et al. Risk factors for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a multicentre study. Lancet 2000; 356:975-81
107 GENTLES TL, MAYER JE Jr, GAUVREAU K, et al. Fontan operation in five hundred consecutive patients: factors influencing early and late outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114:376-91
108 GHOFRANI HA, WIEDEMAN R, ROSE F, et al. Sildenafil for treatment of lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. A randomized controlled trial, Lancet 2002; 360:895-900
109 IGLIA TM, WESSEL DL. Effects of oxygen on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation 1990; 82(suppl III):III-78
110 GOTHBERG S, EDBERG KE. Inhaled nitric oxide to newborns and children after congenital heart surgery on cardio-pulmonary bypass. A dose-response study. Scand Cardiovasc J 2000 ; 34 :154-8
111 GRAHAM TP. Ventricular performance in congenital heart disease. Circulation 1991; 84:2259-74
112 GRAVES PW, DAVIS AL, MAGGI JC, et al. Femoral artery cannulation for monitoring in critically ill children: Prospective study. Crit Care Med 1990; 18:1363-6
113 GREELEY WJ, KERN FH, UNGERLEIDER RM, et al. The effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest on cerebral metabolism in neonates, infants and children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991 ; 101 :783-94
114 GREELEY WJ, UUNGERLEIDERr RM, SMITH LR, et al. The effects of deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest on cerebral blood flow in infants and children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1989; 97(5):737-45
115 GRIGORE AM, MURRAY CF, RAMAKRISHNA H, et al. A core review of temperature regimens and neuroprotection during cardiopulmonary bypass : does rewarming rate matter ? Anesth Analg 2009 ; 109 :1741-51
116 GUPTA P, McDONALD R, CHIPMAN CW, et al. 20-year experience of prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill children with cardiac or pulmonary failure. Ann Thorac Surg 2012 ; 93 :1584-90
117 HABRE W. Anesthesia for non-cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease. In : BISSONNETTE B, edit. Pediatric anesthesia. Basic principles, State of the art, Future. Shelton (CO): People’s Medical Publishing House (USA), 981-7
118 HACK WWM, VOS A, OKKEN A. Incidence of forearm and hand ischaemia related to radial artery cannulation in newborn infants. Intensive Care Med 1990,;16:50-3
119 HAYASHIDA M, CHINZEI M, KOMATSU K, et al. Detection of cerebral hypoperfusion with bispectral index during pediatric cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 2003; 90:694-8
120 HAYDAR A, MAURIAT P, POUARD P, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for postoperative pulmonary hypertension in patients with congenital heart defects. Lancet 1992; 340:1545
121 HEHIR DA, DOMINGUEZ TE, BALLWEG JA, et al. Risk factors for interstage death after stage I reconstruction of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and variants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008 ; 136 :94-9
122 HICKEY PR, HANSEN DD, WESSEL DL, et al. Blunting of stress responses in the pulmonary circulation of infants by fentanyl. Anesth Analg 1985; 64:1137-45
123 HICKEY PR, HANSEN DD, STAFFORD M, et al. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic effects of nitrous oxide in infants with normal and elevated PVR. Anesthesiology 1986; 65:374-8
124 HILLIER SC, BURROWS FA, BISSONNETTE B, et al. Cerebral hemodynamics in neonates and infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and profound hypothermic circulatory arrest: Assessment by transcranial Doppler sonography. Anesth Analg 1991; 72:723-8
125 HO AM, CHUNG DC, JOYNT GM. Neuraxial blockade and haematoma in cardiac surgery: estimating the risk of a rare adverse event that does not (yet) occured. Chest 2000; 117:551-5
126 HOFFMAN GM, GHANAYEM NS, KAMPINE JM, et al. Venous saturation and the anaerobic threshold in neonates after Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70:1515-20
127 HONJO O, Van ARSDELL GS. Cardiovascular procedures : surgical considerations. In : BISSONNETTE B, edit. Pediatric anesthesia. Basic principles, State of the art, Future. Shelton (CO): People’s Medical Publishing House (USA), 1589-608
128 HOOVER LR, DINAVAHI R, CHENG WP, et al. Jugular venous oxygenation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in patients at risk for abnormal cerebral autoregulation: influence of a-stat versus pH-stat blood gas management. Anesth Analg 2009; 108:1389-93
129 HOSEIN RB, CLARK AJ, McGUIRK SP, et al. Factors influencing early and late outcome following the Fontan procedure in the current era. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007; 31:344-53
130 HOSKING MP, BEYNEN FM. The modified Fontan procedure: physiologic and anesthetic implications. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992; 6:465-7
131 HOVEL-GURICH HH, SEGHAYE MC, MA Q, et al. Long-term results of cardiac and general health status in children after neonatal arterial switch operation. Ann Thorac Surg 2003; 75:935-43
132 HUMBERT M, SITBON O, Simonneau G. Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1425-36
133 HUNTINGTON JH, MALVIYA S, VOEPEL-LEWIS T, et al. The effect of a right-to-left intracardiac shunt on the rate of rise of arterial and end-tidal halothane in children. Anesth Analg 1999; 88:759-62
134 IODICE FG, THOMAS M, WALKER I, et al. Analgesia in fast-track paediatric cardiac patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2011 ; 40 :610-3
135 IRISH CL, MURKIN JM, CLELAND A, et al. Neuromuscular blocked significantly decreases systemic oxygen consumption during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1991; 5:132-4
136 IVY DD. Advances in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension. Curr Opin Cardiol 2012; 27:70-81
137 JAFFE RA, PINTO FJ, SCHNITTGER I, et al. Aspects of mechanical ventilation affecting interatrial shunt flow during general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1992; 75:484-8
138 JIMENEZ M, ESPILl G, THAMBO JB, et al: Outcome of operated Fallot’s tetralogy. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 2002; 95:1104-11
139 JOBES DR, NICOLSON SC, STEVEN JM, et al. Carbon dioxide prevents pulmonary overcirculation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 54:150-1
140 JOFFE AR, LEQUIER L, ROBERTSON CM. Pediatric outcomes after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac disease and for cardiac arrest : a review. ASAIO J 2012 ; 58 :297-310
141 JONAS RA. Flow reduction and cessation. In: Jonas RA, Elliott MJ. Cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates, infants and young children. Oxford : Butterworth, 1994, 67-81
142 JONAS RA. Hypothermia, circulatory arrest, and the pediatric brain. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996; 10:66-74
143 JOURNOIS D, POUARD P, GREELEY WJ, et al. Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 1994; 81:1181-9
144 KADOSAKI M, KAWAMURA T, OYAMA K, et al. Usefulness of nitric oxide treatment for pulmonary hypertensive infants during cardiac anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2002; 96:835-40
145 KAEMMERER H. Aortic coarctation and interrupted aortic arch. In GATZOULIS MA, et al, Eds. Diagnosis and management of adult congenital heart disase. Edinburgh, Churchill-Livingstone 2003, 253-64
146 KAMBAM JR, KING P. Effect of right to left cardiopulmonary shunt on the uptake and distribution of inhaled anesthetics. Int J Clin Monit Comput 1991; 8:169-73
147 KARL TR, WEINTRAUB RG, BRIZARD CP, et al. Senning plus arterial switch operation for discordant (congenitally corrected) transposition. Ann Thorac Surg 1997; 64:495-502
148 KEEN G. Spinal cord damage and operations for coarctation of the aorta: aetiology, practice and propects. Thorax 1987; 42:11-8
149 KERN FH, GIESER WG, FARRELL DM. Extracorporeal circulation and circulatory assist devices in the pediatric patient. In: Lake CL. Pediatric cardiac anesthesia, 2nd edition. Norwalk : Appleton & Lange, 1993, pp 151-79
150 KERN FH, UNGERLEIDER RM, QUILL TJ, et al. Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991 ; 101 :618-22
151 KERN FH, UNGERLEIDER RM, REVES JG, et al. The effect of altering pump flow rate on cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism in neonates, infants and children. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 56:1366-72
152 KIELER-JENSEN N, LUNDIN S, RICKSTEN S. Vasodilator therapy after heart transplantation: effects of inhaled nitric oxide and intravenous prostacyclin, prostaglandin E1, sodium nitroprusside. J Heart Lung Transplant 1995; 14:436-43
153 KIRKLIN JW, BARRAT-BOYES BG. Cardiac Surgery, 2nd edition, New-York: Churchill-Livingstone 1993, p 74
154 KIRSHBOM PM, SKARYAK LA, DIBERNARDO LR, et al. Effects of aorto-pulmonary collaterals on cerebral cooling and cerebral metabolic recovery after circulatory arrest. Circulation 1995 ; 92(Suppl II) :II490-4
155 KRANE EJ, SU JY. Comparison of the effects of halothane on skinned myocardial fibers from newborn and adult rabbitt. Anesthesiology 1989; 70:76-81
156 KUMAR SP, RUBENSTEIN CS, SIMSIC JM, et al. Lateral tunnel versus extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure: a concurrent comparison. Ann Thorac Surg 2003; 76:1389-97¨
157 KURTH CD, STEVEN JM. Keeping a cool head. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:598-600
158 KURTH CD, STEVEN JM, MONTENEGRO LM. Cerebral oxygen saturation before congenital heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72:187-92
159 KURTH CD, STEVEN JM, NICOLSON SC. Cerebral oxygenation during pediatric cardiac surgery using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Anesthesiology 1995; 82:74-82
160 KUSSMAN BD, HOLZMAN RS. Cardiac embryology : Understanding congenital heart disease for the noncardiac anesthesiologist. Sem Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001 ; 5 : 2-20
161 LAIRD TH, STAYER SA, RIVENES SM, et al. Pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane and fentanyl/midazolam with 100% oxygen in children with congenital heart disease. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:1200-6
162 LAKE CL. Neonatal myocardial and circulatory function. In: Lake CL. Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, 2nd edition, Norwalk : Appleton & Lange, 1993, 33-42
163 LAKS H, PEARL JM, HAAS GS, et al. Partial Fontan : Advantages of an adjustable interatrial communication. Ann Thorac Surg 1991 ; 52 :1084-95
164 LANZMAN IS, DAVIS PJ. Aortic coarctation: anesthetic considerations. Semin Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 2001; 5:91-7
165 LEVIN AR. Atrial pressure-flow dynamics in atrial septal defects (secundum type). Circulation 1968; 37:476-9
166 LEYVI G, WASNICK JD. Single-ventricle patient: pathophysiology and anesthetic management. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2010; 24:121-30
167 LI J, ZHANG G, McCRINDLE BW, et al. Profiles of hemodynamics and oxygen transport derived by using continuous measured oxygen consumption after the Norwood procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133:441-8
168 LICHTOR JL, BECKER BE, RUSCHAUPT DG. Myocardial depression during induction in infants. Anesthesiology 1983; 59:A452
169 LIN FC, FU M, YEH SH, WU D. Doppler atrial flow patterns in patients with secundum atrial septal defects. Determinants, limitations and pitfalls. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1988; 1:141-5
170 LOZANO S, MOSSAD E. Cerebral function monitors during pediatric cardiac surgery: Can they make a difference ? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004; 18:645-56
171 LUN K, LI H, LEUNG MP. Analysis of indications for surgical closure of subarterial ventricular septal defect without aortic cusp prolapse and aortic regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 2001; 87:1266-70
172 MAHAJAN A, MARIJIC J. Hemodynamic management. In: ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 225-40
173 MALAN JE, BENATAR A, LEVIN SE. Long-term follow-up of coarctation of the aorta repaired by patch angioplasty. Int J Cardiol 1991; 30:23-9
174 MALLINSON C, BENNETT J, HODGSON P, et al. Position of the internal jugular vein in children: A study of the anatomy using ultrasonography. Paediatr Anaesth 1999; 9:111-4
175 MANGOUSH O, PARKAYASTHA S, HAJ-YAHIA S, et al. Heparin-bonded circuits versus nonheparin-bonded circuits. An evaluation of their effect on clinical outcomes. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007 ; 31 :1058-69
176 MARCELETTI CF, HANLEY FL, MAVROUDIS C, et al. Revisions of previous Fontan connections to total extracardiac cavopulmonary anastomosis: A multicenter experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119:340-6
177 MARELLI AJ, MACKIE AS, IONESCU-ITTU R, et al . Congenital heart disease in the general population: changing prevalence and age distribution. Circulation 2007; 115:163-72
178 MATHEW JP, WEATHERWAX KJ, EAST CJ, et al. Bispectral analysis during cardiopulmonary bypass: The effect of hypothermia on the hypnotic state. J Clin Anesth 2001; 13:301-5
179 McAULIFFE JJ. Myocardial preservation. In : LAKE CL, ed. Pediatric cardiac anesthesia, 3rd edition. Stamford :Appleton & Lange, 1998, 259-83
180 McELHINNEY DB, HEDRICK HL, BUSH DM, et al. Necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates with congenital heart disease: Risk factors and outcomes. Pediatrics 2000; 106:1080-7
181 McCRINDLE BW. Coarctation of the aorta. Curr Opin Cardiol 1999; 14:448-52
182 McGRATH RL, WELL JV. Adverse effects of normovolemic polycythemia and hypoxia on hemodynamics in the dog. Circ Res 1978; 43:793-8
183 MENACHE CC, DU PLESSIS AJ, WESSEL DL, et al. Current incidence of acute neurologic complications after open-heart surgery in children. Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 73:1752-8
184 MICHELAKIS E, TYMCHAK W, LIEN D, et al. Oral sildenafil is an effective and specific pulmonary vasodilator in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: Comparison with inhaled nitric oxide. Circulation 2002; 105:2398-403
185 MILLER JP, LAMBERT AS, SHAPIRO WA, et al. The adequacy of basic intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography performed by experienced anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg 2001; 92:1103-10
186 MILLER O, CELERMEYER D, DEANFIELD J, et al. Very low dose inhaled nitric oxide: A selective pulmonary vasodilator after operations for congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994; 108:487-94
187 MILLER O, TANG S, KEECH A, et al. Rebound pulmonary hypertension on withdrawal from inhaled nitric oxide. Lancet 1995; 346:51-2
188 MITCHENFELDER JD. The hypothermic brain. In: Anesthesia and the brain. New-York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1988, 23-34
189 MITCHENFELDER JD, MILDE JH. The relationship among canine brain temperature, metabolism and function during hypothermia. Anesthesiology 1991; 75:130-6
190 MITTNACHT AJC. Pro : Early extubation following surgery for congenital heart disese. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011 ; 25 :874-6
191 Moncada S, Palmer R, Higgs E. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Pharmacological Review 1991; 43:109-42
192 MORTON NS, JOHNSTON G, WHITE M, et al. Propofol in paediatric anaesthesia. Paediatr Anesth 1992; 2:89-97
193 MURKIN JM, FARAR JK, TWEED WA. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO2. Anesth Analg 1987; 66:825-32
194 MURRAY T. OYOS TL, FORBES RB, et al. Hemodynamic depression during propofol infusions in children. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:A1157
195 NAIK SK, KNIGHT A, ELLIOTT MJ. A prospective randomized study of a modified technique of ultrafiltration during pediatric open-heart surgery. Circulation 1991 ; 84 :III422-31
196 NEWBURGER JW, JONAS RA, WERNOVSKY G, et al. A comparison of the perioperative neurologic effects of hypothermic circulatory arrest versus low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:1057-64
197 NICOLSON SC, STEVEN JM. Anesthesia for the patient with a single ventricle. In : ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 356-72
198 NISHIMURA RA, CARABELLO BA, FAXON DP, et al. 2008 Guideline update on valvular heart disease: focused update on infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 52:676-85
199 NOLLERT G, FISCHLEIN T, BOUTEWERK S, et al. Long-term survival in patients with repair of tetralogy of Fallot: 36 year follow-up of 490 survivors of the first year after surgical repair. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30:1374-83
200 NOROSI K, WESSEL A, ALPERS V, et al. Incidence and risk distribution of heart failure in adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. Am J Cradiol 2006; 97:1238-43
201 NUSSMEIER NA, ARLUNG C, SLOGOFF S. Neuropsychological dysfunction after cardio-pulmonary bypass: cerebral protectiono by a barbiturate. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1991; 5:584-9
202 NUTTALL GA, FASS DN, OYEN IJ, et al. A study of a weight-adjusted aprotinin dosing schedule during cardiac surgery. Anest Analg 2002 ; 94 :283-9
203 O’BRIEN JJ, BUTTERWORTH J, HAMMON JW, et al. Cerebral emboli during cardiac surgery in children. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:1063-9
204 ODEGARD KC, DiNARDO JA, KUSSMAN BD, et al. The frequency of anesthesia-related cardiac arrests in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2007 ; 106 :335-43
205 ODEGARD KC, LAUSSEN PC. Approach to premature and full-term infant. In: ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 197-209
206 OECHSLIN E. Eisenmenger’s syndrome. In: GATZOULIS MA, WEBB GD, DAUBENEY PEF, Eds. Diagnosis and management of adult congenital heart disease. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone 2003, pp 363-77
207 OHYE RG, SLEEPER LA, MAHONY L, et al. Comparison of shunt types in the Norwood procedure for single-ventricle lesions. N Engl J Med 2010 ; 362 :1980-92
208 PALEVSKY HI, SCHLOO BL, PIETRA CC, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension: Vascular structure, morphometry, and responsiveness to vasodilator agents. Circulation 1989; 80:1207-21
209 PATEL RL, TURTLE MR, CHAMBERS DJ, et al. Alpha-stat acid-base regulation during cardiopulmonary bypass improves neuropsychologic outcomes in patients udergoing coronary artery bypass grapfting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 111:1267-79
210 PEARL JM, LAKS H, DRINKWATER DC, et al. Normocalcemic blood or crystalloid cardioplegia provides better neonatal myocardial protection than low-calcium cardioplegia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993 ; 105 :201-6
211 PERLOFF JK: Survival patterns without cardiac surgery or interventional catheterization: a narrowing base, in: Perloff JK, Child JS, (eds): Congenital heart disease in adults. 2nd edition. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1998, 15-53.
212 PERLOFF JK, MARELLI AJ, MINER PD. Risk of stroke in adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Circulation 1993; 87:1954-9
213 PETIT CJ. Staged single-ventricle palliation in 2011 : outcomes and expectations. Congenit Heart Dis 2011 ; 6:406-16
214 PICCOLI GP. Morphology and classification of complete atrioventricular defects. Brit Heart J 1979; 42:633-9
215 PIGULA FA, KHALIL PN, MAYER JE, et al. Repair of tetralogy of Fallot in neonates and young infants. Circulation 1999; 100(Suppl II):157-61
216 POUARD P, MAURIAT P, LABORDE N, BOURDARIAS B. Cicrulation extracorporelle en chirurgie cardiaque pédiatrique chez le nouveau-né, le nourrisson et l’enfant. In: JANVIER G, LEHOT JJ, eds. Circulation extracorporelle: principes et pratique, 2ème édition. Paris: Arnette (Groupe Liaison SA) 2004, 481-506
217 PREISMAN S, LEMBERSKY H, YUSIM Y, et al. A randomized trial of outcomes of anesthetic management directed to very early extubation after cardiac surgery in children. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009; 23:348-57
218 RABINOVITCH M, HAWORTH SG, CASTANEDA AR, et al. Lung biopsy in congenital heart disease: a morphometric approach to pulmonary vascular disease. Circulation 1978; 58:1007-22
219 RAMAMOORTHY C, HABERKERN CM, BHANANKER SM, et al. Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children with heart disease : data from the Pediatric Peiroperative Cardiac Arrest (POCA) Registry. Anesth Analg 2010 ; 110 :1376-82
220 RANDOLPH GR, HAGLER DJ, CONNOLLY HM, et al. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography during surgery for congenital heart defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002; 124:1176-82
221 RANUCCI M, BALDUINI A, DITTA A, et al. A systematic review of biocompatible cardiopulmonary bypass circuits and clinical outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg 1009 ; 87 :1311-9
222 RAPPAPORT LA, WYPIJ D, BELLINGER DC, et al. Relation of seizures after cardiac surgery in early infancy to neurodevelopmental outcome. Boston Circulatory Arrest Study Group. Circulation 1998 ; 97 :773-9
223 REBEYKA I. Hypothermia. In: Jonas RA, Elliott MJ. Cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates, infants and young children. Oxford: Butterworth, 1994, 54-66
224 REDDY VM, HANLEY FL. Cardiac surgery in infants with very low birth weight. Semin Pediatr Surg 2000; 9:91-5
225 REDDY VM, McELHINNEY DB, SAGRADO T, et al. Results of 102 cases of complete repair of congenital heart defects in patients weighing 700 to 2500 grams. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 117:324-31
226 RICH GF, LUBANSKIi RE, McLAUGHLIN TM. Differences between aortic and radial artery pressure associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 1992; 77:63-6
227 RICH GF, JOHNS RA. Nitric oxide and the pulmonary circulation. Advances in Anaesthesia 1994; 11:1-25
228 RICH S, MCLAUGHLIN VV. The effects of chronic prostacyclin therapy on cardiac output and symptoms in primary pulomonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 34:1184-7
229 RIVENES SM, LEWIN MB, STAYER SA, et al. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and fentanyl-midazolam in children with congenital heart disease: An echocardiographic study on myocardial contractility and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology 2001; 94:223-9
230 ROBERTS JD, POLANDER D, LANG P, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in persistant pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. Lancet 1992; 340:818-9
231 RODRIGUEZ RA, AUSTIN EH, AUDENAERT SM. Postbypass effects of delayed rewarming on cerebral blood flow velocities in infants aftertotal circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995 ; 110 :1686-91
232 ROSENFELD HM, GENTLES TL, WERNKOVSKY G, et al. Utility of intraoperative echocardiography in the assessment of residual cardiac defects. Ped Cardiol 1998; 19:346-51
233 ROSENZWEIG E, STARC T, CHEN J, et al. Intravenous argini-vasopressin in children with vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery. Circulation 1999; 100:182-6
234 ROSS EA, PERLOFF JK, DANOVITCH GM, et al. Renal function and urate metabolism in late survivors with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Circulation 1986; 73:396-400
235 ROSSI AF, SEIDEN HS, SADEGHI AM, et al. The outcome of cardiac operations in infants weighing two kilograms or less. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 116:28-35
236 RIORDAN CJ, RANDSBAEK F, STOREY JH, et al. Inotropes in the hypoplastic left heart syndrome : effects in an animal model. Ann Thorac Surg 1996 ; 62 :83-90
237 RUBIN LJ, BADESCH DB, BARST RJ, et al. Bosentan therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:896-903
238 SAMIR K, RIBERI A, GHEZ O, et al. Delayed sternal closure : a life-saving measure in neonatal open heart surgery : could it be predictable ? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 ; 21 :787-93
239 SCHMITZ ML, ULLAH S. Anesthesia for right-sided obstructive lesions. In : ANDROPOULOS DA, et al, eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Oxford: Blackwell-Futura, 2005, 328-45
240 SCHURRE AY, LAUSSEN PC, McGOWAN FX. Mechanical cardioplmonary support in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001 ; 5 :45-54
241 SCHWARTZ ML, JONAS RA, COLAN SD. Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery : Recovery of left ventricular function after dual coronary repair. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997 ; 30 :547-53
242 SCHNEIDER B, ZIENKIEWICZ T, JANSEN V, et al. Diagnosis of patent foramen ovale by transesophageal echocardiography and correlation with autopsy findings. Am J Cardiol 1996; 77:1202-9
243 SCHROEDER RA, WOOD GL, PLOTKIN JS, et al. Intraoperative use of inhaled PGI(2) for acute pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:291-5
244 SFEZ M, LE MAPIHANY, LEVRON JC, et al. Comparaison de la pharmacocinétique de l’étomidate chez l’enfant et chez l’adulte. Ann Fr Anesth Réanim 1990; 9:127
245 SHAABAN T, HARMER M, LATTO P. Jugular bulb oximetry during cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia 2001; 56:24-37
246 SHANEWISE JS, CHEUNG AT, ARONSON S, et al. ASE/SCA guidelines for performing a comprehensive intraoperative multiplane ttransesophageal echocardiography examination: Recommendations of the ASE Council for intraoperative echocardiography and the SCA Task Force for certification in perioperative transesophageal echocardiography. Anesth Analg 1999; 89:870-8
247 SHINEBOURNE EA, MACARTNEY FJ, ANDERSON RH. Sequential chamber localization. Logical approach to diagnosis in congenital heart disesase. Brit Heart J 1976; 38:327-40
248 SILVERSIDES CK, DORE A, POIRIER N, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: Shunt lesions. Can J Cardiol 2010; 26:e70-e79
249 SILVERSIDES CK, KIESS M, BEAUCHESNE L, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: Outflow tract obstruction, coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, Ebstein anomaly and Marfan’s syndrome. Can J Cardiol 2010; 26:e80-e97
250 SLOAN MH, LERMAN J, BISSONNETTE B. Pharmacodynamics of high-dose vecuronium in children during balanced anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1991; 74:656-9
251 SNIDER AR, SERVER GA, RITTER SB. Defects in cardiac septation. In : Snider AR, Serwer GA, Ritter SB. Echocardiography in pediatric heart disease. 2nd ed. St Louis, Mosby, 1997, pp. 235-96.
252 SPRUNG J, SCHUETZ SM, STEWART RW, et al. Effects of ketamine on the contractility of failing and non-failing human heart muscles in vitro. Anesthesiology 1998; 88:1202-10
253 SRIDAROMONT S, FELDT RH, RITTER DG, et al. Double outlet right ventricle: hemodynamic and anatomic correlations. Am J Cardiol. 1976; 38:85-94.
254 STAMM C, FRIEHS I, MAYER JE, et al. Long-term results of the lateral tunnel Fontan operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 121:28-41
255 STARK J. GALLIVAN S, LOVEGROVE J, et al. Mortality rates after surgery for congenital heart defects in children and surgeon’s performance. Lancet 2000; 355:1004-7
256 STAYER SA, HAMMER GB. Airway and ventilatory management. In ANDROPOULOS DB, et al, Eds. Anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Malden (MA): Blackwell Futura (USA), 2005, 266-82
257 STEVENSON JG. Adherence to physician training guidelines for pediatric transesophageal echocardiography affects the outcome of patients undergoing repair of congenital cardiac defects. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1999; 12:165-72
258 STEVENSON JG. Incidence of complications in pediatric transesophageal echocardiography: experience in 1650 cases. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1999;12:527-32.
259 STEVENSON JG, SORENSEN GK, GARTMAN DM, et al. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: An indication for intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1993; 6:525-35
260 STOCKER CF, SHEKERDEMIAN LS, NORGAARD MA, et al. Mechanisms of a reduced cardiac output and the effects of milrinone and levosimendan in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med 2007; 35:252-9
261 STOELTING RK, LONGNECKER DE. Effect of right-to-left shunt on rate of increase in arterial anesthetic concentration. Anesthesiology 1972; 36:352-6
262 STÜMPER O. Normal and anomaélous venous connections to the heart. In : STÜMPER O, SUTHERLAND GR. Transesophageal echocardiography in congenital heart disease. London, Edward Arnold, 1994, 34-45
263 STÜMPER O, SUTHERLAND GR. Evaluation of Mustard and Senning procedures. In: STÜMPER O, SUTHERLAND GR. Transesophageal echocardiography in congenital heart disease. London, Edward Arnold, 1994, 247-60
264 SUN LS, DU F, QUAGEBEUR JM. Right ventricular infundibular b-adrenoreceptor complex in tetralogy of Fallot patients. Pediatr Res 1997; 42:12-6
265 SWAIN JA, McDONALD TJ, ROBBINS RC, et al. Relationship of cerebral and myocardial intracellular pH to blood pH during hypothermia. Am J Physiol 1991 ; 260 :H1640-4
266 TABBUTT S, RAMAMOORTHY C, MONTENEGRO LM, et al. Impact of inspired gaz mixtures on preoperative infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome during controlled ventilation. Circulation 2001 ; 104 :1159-64
267 TABIS J, SHENODA M. Percutaneous treatment of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012 ; 000 : 000 (in press)
268 TAKKENBERG JJM, KLIEVERIK LMA, SCHOOF PH, et al. The Ross procedure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 2009; 119:222-8
269 Taylor RH, Burrows FA, Bissonnette B. Cerebral pressure-flow velocity relationship during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates and infants. Anesth Analg 1992; 74:636-42
270 TAYLOR RH, LERMAN J. Induction, maintenance and recovery characteristics of deslurane in infants and children. Can J Anaesth 1992; 39:6-13
271 TEE SDG, SHIOTA T, WEINTRAUB R, et al. Evaluation of ventricular septal defect by transesophageal echocardiography: Intraoperative assessment. Am Heart J 1994; 127:585-92
272 TEMPE DK, VIRMANI S. Coagulation abnormalities in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002; 16:752-65
273 TERMIGNON JL, LECA F, VOUHE PR, et al. “Classic” repair of congenitally corrected transposition and ventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg 1996 ; 62 :199-206
274 THORNBURG KL, MORTON MJ. Filling and arterial pressures as determinants of RV stroke volume in the sheep fetus. Am J Physiol 1983,;144:H656-H663.
275 THORSTEINSSON A, JONMARKER C, LARSSON A, et al. Functional residual capacity in anesthetized children: normal values and values in children with cardiac anomalies. Anesthesiology 1990; 73:876-81
276 TRIVEDI UH, PATEL RL, TURTLE MR, et al. Relative changes in cerebral blood flow during cardiac operations using Xenon 133 clearance versus transcranial Doppler sonography. Ann Thorac Surg 1997; 63:167-74
277 TURANLAHTI M, LAITINEN P, PESONEN E. Preoperative and postoperative response to inhaled nitric oxide. Scand Cardiovasc J 2000; 34:46-52
278 TWEDDELL J, HOFFMAN G, FEDDERLY R, et al. Phenoxybenzamine improves systemic oxygen delivery after the Norwood procedure. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 67:161-7
279 d’UDEKEM Y, IYENGAR AJ, COCHRANE AD, et al. The Fontan procedure: contemporary techniques have improved long-term outcomes. Circulation 2007; 116:157-64
280 UNGERLEIDER RM, GREELEY WJ, SHEIKH KH. The use of intraoperative echo with Doppler color flow imaging to predict outcome after repair of congenital cardiac defects. Ann Surg 1989; 210:526-33
281 UNGERLEIDER RM, KISSLO JA, GREELEY WJ, et al. Intraoperative echocardiography during congenital heart operations: Experience from 1000 cases. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 60:S539-42
282 UNGERLEIDER RM, GREELEY WJ, SHEIKH KH, et al. Routine use of intraoperative epicardial echocardiography and Doppler color flow imaging to guide and evaluate repair of congenital heart lesions. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1990; 100:297-309
283 VAN NIEUWENHUISEN RC, PETERS M, LUBBERS TJ, et al. Abnormalities in liver function and coagulation profile following the Fontan procedure. Heart11999; 82:40-6
284 VAN PRAAGH R. Tetralogy of Fallot: underdevelopment of the pulmonary infundibulum and its sequelae. Am J Cardiol 1970; 47:1279
285 VAN PRAAGH R. Terminology of congenital heart disease. Glossary and commentary. Circulation 1977; 56:139-43
286 VAN PRAAGH R, VAN PRAAGH S. The anatomy of common aortico-pulmonary trunk (truncus arteriosus communis) and its embryologic implications. A study of 57 necropsy cases. Am J Cardiol 1965; 16:406-25
287 VARMA C, WARR MR, HENDLER AL, et al. Prevalence of “silent” pulmonary emboli in adults after the Fontan operation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41:2252-8
288 VON OPPELL UO, DUNNE TT, DE GROOT MK, et al. Traumatic aortic rupture: twenty-year meta-analysis of mortality and risk of paraplegia. Ann Thorac Surg 1994; 58:585-93
289 WARNES CA. Adult congenital heart disease. Importance of the right ventricle. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54:1903-10
290 WARNES CA, LIBERTHSON R, DANIELSON GK, et al: Task Force 1: The changing profile of congenital heart disease in adult life. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37:1170-5
291 WARREN OJ, SMITH AJ, ALEXIOU C, et al. The inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass : Part I – Mechanisms of pathogenesis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009 ; 23 :223-31
292 WARREN OJ, WATRET AL, DeWIT KL, et al. The inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass : Part II – Anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009 ; 23 :384-93
293 WATANABE T, HRITA H, KOBAYASHI M, et al. Brain tissue pH, oxygen tension and carbon dioxide tension in profoundly hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1989; 97:396-401
294 WEINSTEIN S, GAYNOR JW, BRIDGES ND, et al. Early survival of infants weighing 2.5 kilograms or less undergoing first-stage reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Circulation 1999; 100:II167-70
295 WEINTRAUB R, SHIOTA T, ELKADI T, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Circulation 1992; 86:711-22
296 WERNOVSKY G, RUBENSTEIN SD, SPRAY TL. Cardiac surgery in the low-birth weight neonate. New approaches. Clin Perinatol 2001; 28:249-64
297 WESSEL DL, DUPLESSIS AJ. Choreoatetosis. In : JONAS RA, et al. Eds. Brain injury and pediatric cardiac surgery. Boston :Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996, 353-62
298 WESTERMAIER T, HUNGERHUBER E, ZAUSINGER S, et al. Neuroprotective efficacy of intra-arterial and intravenous magnesium sulfate in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Acta Neurochir 2003; 145:393-9
299 WESTRIN P. The induction dose of propofol in infants 1-6 months of age and in children 10-16 years of age. Anesthesiology 1991; 74:455-8
300 WHITLOCK RP, CHAN S, DEVEREAUX PJ, et al. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass : a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur Heart J 2008 ; 29 :2592-600
301 WILLIAMS WG, McCRINDLE BW, ASHBURN DA, et al. Outcomes of 829 neonates with complete transposition of the great arteries 12-17 years after repair. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2003; 24:1-9
302 WOLFE RR, LOEHR JP, SCHAFFER MS, et al. Hemodynamic effects of ketamine, hypoxia and hyperoxia in children with surgically treated congenital heart disease residing ≥ 1200 meters above sea level. Am J Cardiol 1991; 67:84-7
303 YOSIUMOTO T, SAKAMOTO T, WATANABE T,, et al. Experimental cerebral infarction, part 3: Protective effect of mannitol in thalamic infarction in dogs. Stroke 1978; 9:217-22
304 YOUNG JN, CHOY IO, SILVA NK, et al. Antegrade cold blood cardioplegia is not demonstrably advantageous over cold crystalloid cardioplegia in surgery for congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997 ; 114 :1002-9

305 YUKI K, SHARMA R, DINARDO J. Ventricular assist device therapy in children. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2012; 26:247-64
306 ZIMMERMAN AA, BURROWS FA, JONAS RA, et al. The limits of detectable cerebral perfusion by transcranial Doppler sonography in neonates undergoing deep hypothermic low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114:594-600

 

 


Auteurs

Dominique A. BETTEX Privat-Docente, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Zürich, Cheffe du Service d’Anesthésie Cardiovasculaire, Institut für Anästhesiologie, Universitätspital Zürich (USZ) & KinderSpital Zürich, CH - 8031 Zürich

Yann BOEGLI Chef de Clinique en Anesthésie Pédiatrique, Service d’Anesthésiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), CH - 1011 Lausanne. Ancien Praticien Hospitalier Contractuel (PHC), Service d’Anesthésie Cardiaque, Hôpital Necker – Enfants Malades, F- 75015 Paris

Pierre-Guy CHASSOT Ancien Privat-Docent, Maître d’enseignement et de recherche, Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine, Université de Lausanne (UNIL), CH - 1005 Lausanne. Ancien responsable de l’Anesthésie Cardiovasculaire, Service d’Anesthésiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), CH - 1011 Lausanne