Logo   Accueil | Table des matières | Téléchargements | Liens |   Mentions légales   | Contact |Abréviations


Lectures conseillées

BORLAUG BA. The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Nat Rev Cardiol 2014; 11:507-15
BUCKBERG GD, HOFFMAN JIE, MAHAJAN A, et al. Cardiac mechanisms revisited: the relationship of cardiac architecture to ventricular function. Circulation 2008; 118:2571-87
CREA F, LIUZZO G. Pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 61:1-11
FEIHL F, BROCCARD AF. Interactions between respiration and systemic hemodynamics. Part I: basic concepts. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35:45-54
FRIEDBERG MK, REDINGTON AN. Right versus left ventricular failure: differences, similarities, and interactions. Circulation 2014; 129:1033-44
HUNT SA. Right ventricular function in cardiovascular disease, Part II. Pathophysiology, clinical importance and management of right ventricular failure. Circulation 2008; 117:1717-31
KERN MJ, SAMADY H. Current concepts of integrated coronary physiology in the catheterization laboratory. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55:173-85
LIBBY P. Mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes and their implications for therapy. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:2004-13
PAGEL PS. Myocardial protection by volatile anesthetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A critical review of the laboratory and clinical evidence. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013; 27:972-82
SENGUPTA PP, KRISHNAMOORTHY VK, KORINEK J, et al. Left ventricular form and function revisited: Applied translational science to cardiovascular ultrasound imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007; 20:539-51
THUNBERG CA, GAITAN BD, GREWAL A, et al. Pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Pathophysiology, perioperative management and outcome. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013; 27:551-72
ZAUGG M, SCHAUB MC. Cellular mechanisms in sympatho-modulation of the heart. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:34-52
ZILE MR, BRUTSAERT DL. New concept in diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure: Part I. Diagnosis, prognosis, and measurement of diastolic function. Circulation 2002; 105:1387-93



1 AEBISCHER N, MALHOTTA R, CONNORS L, et al. Ventricular interdependence during Valsalva maneuver as seen by two-dimensional echocardiography: New insights about an old method. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1995; 8:536-42
2 ALCINDOR D, KROLIKOWSKI JG, PAGEL PS, et al. Cycloxygenase-2 mediates ischemic, anesthetic and pharmacologic preconditioning in vivo. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:547-54
3 ALPERT JS, THYGESEN K, ANTMAN JP. Myocardial infarction redefined – a consensus document of the Joint European Society of Cardiology / American College of Cardiology Committee for the redifinition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36:959-69
4 ANDERSON KM, FABER JE. Differential sensitivity of arteriolar 1- and 2-adrenoreceptor constriction to metabolic inhibition during rate skeletal muscle contraction. Circ Res 1991; 69:174-84
5 ANDREWS KL, TRIGGLE CR, ELLIS A. NO and the vasculature: where does it come from and what does it do ? Heart Fail Rev 2002; 7:423-45
6 ANTMAN EM, BRAUNWALD E. ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical features. In: ZIPES DP, et al, eds. Braunwald’s heart disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine, 7th edition. Philadelphia, Elsevier-Saunders, 2005, 1141-65
7 ANVERSA P, et al. Myocyte growth and cardiac repair. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2002; 14:91-105
8 ARAI AE, GRAUER SE, ANSELONE CG, et al. Metabolic adaptation to a gradual reduction in myocardial blood flow. Circulation 1995; 92:244.52
9 ARCHER SL, WEIR K, WILKINS MR. Basic science of pulmonary arterial hypertension for clinicians: New concepts and experimental therapies. Circulation 2010; 121:2045-66
9a ARQUES S, ROUX E, LUCCIONI R. Current clinical applications of spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/E’ ratio) as a noninvasive surrogate of left ventricular diastolic pressures in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2007; 5:16
10 ASANOI H, SASAYAMA S, KAMEYAMA T. Ventriculoarterial coupling in normal and failing heart in humans. Circ Res 1989; 65:483-93
10a ASHES CM, YU M, MEINERI M, et al. Diastolic dysfunction, cardiopulmonary bypass, and atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Brit J Anaesth 2014; 113:815-21
11 Ashikaga H, VAN DER SPOEL TIG, COPPOLA BA, OMENS JH. Transmural myocardial mechanics during isovolumic contraction. J Am Coll Cardiol Imag 2009; 2:202-11
12 ASHTON CM, PETERSEN NJ, WRAY NP, et al. The incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction in men undergoing noncardiac surgery. Ann Intern Med 1993; 118:504-10
13 ATHERTON JJ, MOORE TD, LELE SS, et al. Diastolic ventricular interaction in chronic heart failure. Lancet 1997; 349:1720-4
14 Badiwala MV, RAO V. Left ventricular device as destination therapy: are we there yet ? Curr Opin Cardiol 2009; 24:184-9
15 BADNER NH, KNILL RL, BROWN JE, et al. Myocardial infarction after noncardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 1998; 88:572-8
15a BAGGISH AL, WOOD MJ. Athlete’s heart and cardiovascular care of the athlete. Scientific and clinical update. Circulation 2011; 123:2723-35
15b BARDIA A, MONTEALEGRE-GALLEGOS M, MAHMOOD F, et al. Left atrial size: An underappreciated perioperative cardiac risk factor. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2014; 28:1624-32
16 BARON JF, VICAUT E, HOU X, DUVELLEROY M. Independent role of arterial O2 tension in local control of coronary blood flow. Am J Physiol 1990; 258:H1388-94
17 BÄRTSCH P, MAIRBÄURL, MAGGIORINI M, et al. Physiological aspects of high-altitude pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98:1101-10
18 BELZ G, BERNUTH GV, HOFSTETTER R, et al. Temporal sequence of right and left atrial contraction during spontaneous sinus rhythm and paced left atrium rhythm. Br Heart J 1973; 35: 284-7
18a BENHABBOUCHE S, CROLA DA SILVA C, ABRIAL M, FERRERRA R. The basis of ischemia-reperfusion and myocardial protection. Ann Fr Anesth Réanim 2011; 30:S2-S16
19 BENZA RL, MILLER DP, GOMBERG-MAITLAND M, et al. Predicting survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Insights from the Registry to evaluate early and long-term pulmonary arterial hypertension disease management (REVEAL). Circulation 2010; 122:164-72
20 BERNARD F, DENAULT A, BABIN D, et al. Diastolic dysfunction is predictive of difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 2001; 92:291-8
20b BERRY C, DOUGHTY RN, GRANGER C, et al. The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2012; 33:1750-7
21 BERS DM. Excitation-contraction coupling and cardiac contractile force. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001
22 BERS DM. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Nature 2002; 415:198-205
23 BERTINI M, SENGUPTA PP, NUCIFORA G, et al. Role of left ventricular twist mechanics in the assessment of cardiac dyssynchrony in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2009; 2:1425-35
24 BETTEX DA, CHASSOT PG. Echocardiographie transoesophagienne en anesthesia-réanimation. Paris: Masson, Williams & Wilkins, 1997, 245
24a BETTEX DA, WARNER P, BOSSHART M, et al. Role of sevoflurane in organ protection during cardiac surgery in children: a randomized controlled trial. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2015; 20:157-65
25 BIGNAMI E, BIONDI-ZOCCAI G, LANDONI G, et al. Volatile anesthetics reduce mortality in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009; 23:594-9
26 BILLINGER M, SEILER C, FLEISCH M, et al. Do beta-adrenergic blocking agents increase coronary flow reserve ? J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38:1866-71
26a Bishopric NH. Evolution of the heart from bacteria to man. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005; 1047:13-9
27 BLAISE G, LANGLEBEN D, HUBERT B. Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:1415-32
28 BLAKE GJ, RIDKER PM. Inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular risk prediction. J Intern Med 2002; 252:283-94
28a BOENGLER K, SCHULZ R, HEUSCH G. Loss of cardioprotection with ageing. Cardiovasc Res 2009; 83:247-61
29 BOHM M. Catecholamines refractoriness and their mechanisms in cardiocirculatory shock and chronic heart failure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 46(suppl 2):270-5
30 BONOW RO, UDELSON JE. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as a cause of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms and management. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117:502-10
30a BORISSOFF JI, SPRONK HMH, TEN CATE H. The hemostatic system as a modulator of atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 2011; 364:1746-60
30b BORLAUG BA. The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Nat Rev Cardiol 2014; 11:507-15
31 BRAUNWALD E. Is myocardial stunning important from a clinical standpoint? In: Kloner RA, Przylenk K. ed. Stunned Myocardium. Marcel Dekker, Inc, 1993, p 441-452
32 BRAUNWALD E, ANTMAN E, BEASLEY JW, et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation 2000; 102:1193-209
33 BRAUNWALD E, ANTMAN EM, BEASLEY JW, et al. ACC/AHA Guideline update for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocaardial infarction – 2002: Summary article. Circulation 2002; 106:1893-900
34 BRAUNWALD E, BURTON ES. Coronary blood flow and myocardial ischemia. In: Braunwald E, ed. Heart disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 4th edition Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1992, 1161-99
35 BRAUNWALD E, COLUCCI WS. Clinical aspects of heart failure. In: BRAUNWALD E. Heart disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Philadelphia : W. B. Saunders Co, 1997, 445-70
36 BRAUNWALD E, RUTHERFORD JD. Reversible ischemic left ventricular dysfunction: Evidence for the «hibernating myocardium». J Am Coll Cardiol 1986; 8:1467
37 BRISTOW MR. -adrenergic receptors and phosphodiesterases: Present and future perspectives. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003; 7:19-21
38 BRISTOW MR. Antiadrenergic therapy of chronic heart failure. Surprises and new opportunities. Circulation 2003; 107:1100-2
39 BRISTOW MR, GINSBURG R, MINOBE W, et al. Decreased catecholamine sensitivity and beta-adrenergic receptor density in failing human hearts. N Engl J Med 1982; 307:205-11
40 BRITTSAN AG, KRANIAS EG. Phospholamban and cardiac contractile function. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2000; 32:2131-7
41 BRODDE OE, DAUL A, MICHEL-REHNER L, et al. Agonist-induced desensitization of beta-adrenoreceptor function in humans. Circulation 1990; 81:914-21
41a BRONICKI RA, BADEN HP. Pathophysiology of right ventricular failure in pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2010; 11(Suppl):S15-S22
42 BROTEN TP, FEIGL EO. Role of myocardial oxygen and carbon dioxide in coronary autoregulation. Am J Physiol 1992; 262:H1231-7
43 BRUCKNER R, MUGGE A, SCHOLZ H. Existence and functional role of alpha1-adrenoreceptors in the mammalian heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1985; 17:639-45
44 BRUTSAERT DL, SYS SU. Relaxation and diastole of the heart. Physiol Rev 1989; 69:1228-1315
45 BRUTSAERT DL, SYS SU, GILLEBERT TC. Diastolic dysfunction in post-cardiac surgical management. J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 1993; 7(suppl 1):18-20
46 BUCHALTER MB, WEISS JL, ROGERS WG, et al. Noninvasive quantification of left ventricular rotational deformation in normal humans using magnetic resonance imaging myocardial tagging. Circulation 1990; 81:1236-44
47 BUCKBERG GD. Congestive heart failure: Treat the disease, not the symptom – Return to normalcy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 125:S41-S49
48 BUCKBERG GD, CASTELLA M, GHARIB M, SALEH S. Structure/function interface with sequential shortening of basal and apical components of myocardial band. Eur J Cardiothor Surg 2006; 29S:S75-S97
48a BUCKBERG GD, HOFFMAN JIE, MAHAJAN A, et al. Cardiac mechanisms revisited: the relationship of cardiac architecture to ventricular function. Circulation 2008; 118:2571-87
49 BUCKBERG GD, FIXLER DE, ARCHIE JP, et al. Experimental subendocardial ischemia in dogs with normal coronary arteries. Cric Res 1972; 30:67
50 BUFFINGTON CW, DAVIS KB, GILLEPSIE S, et al. The prevalence of steal-prone anatomy in patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology 1988; 69:721
51 BUFFON A, BIASUCCI LM, LIUZZO G, et al. Widespread coronary inflammation in unstable angina. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:5-12
52 BUNDTS W, VAN PELT N, GILLYNS H, et al. Residual pulmonary vasoreactivity to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe obstructive pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome. Heart 2001; 86:553-9
52a BURCHFIELD JS, XIE M, HILL JA. Pathological ventricular remodeling: Mechanisms. Part 1 of 2. Circulation 2013; 128:388-400
53 BURKHOFF D, SAGAWA K. Ventricular efficiency predicted by an analytical model. Am J Physiol 1986; 250: R1021- R1027
54 CACOUB P, DORENT R, NATAF P, et al. Endothelin-1 in the lungs of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 1997; 33:196-203
55 CAIN SM. Supply dependency of oxygen uptake in ARDS: myth or reality? Am J Med Sci 1984; 288:119-24
56 CAMPBELL KB, CHANDRA M. Functions of stretch activation in heart muscle. J Gen Physiol 2006; 127:89-94
57 CANNESSON M. Arterial pressure variation and goal-directed fluid therapy. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2010; 24:487-97
58 CANNESSON M, ATTOFF Y, ROSAMEL P, et al. Respiratory variations in pulse oxymetry plethysmographic waveform amplitude to predict fluid responsiveness in the operating room. Anesthesiology 2007; 106:1105-11
59 CANTY JM, SCHWARTZ JS. Nitric oxide mediates flow-dependent epicardial coronary vasodilatation to changes in pulse frequency but not mean flow in conscious dogs. Circulation 1994; 89:375-84
60 CASON BA, GAMPERL AK, SLOCUM RE, HICKEY RF. Anesthetic-induced preconditioning: previous administration of isoflurane decreases myocardial infarct size in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 1182-90
61 CASSCELLS W, NAGHAVI M, WILLERSON JT. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. A multifocal disease. Circulation 2003; 107:2072-5
61a CHAMPION HC, MICHELAKIS ED, HASSOUN PM. Comprehensive invasive and noninvasive approach to the right ventricle-pulmonary circulation unit. Circulation 2009; 120:992-1007
62 CHAN MY, PRONOVOST PJ. Clinical utility of biomarkers in myocardial injury. Curr Opin Anesthesiol 2004; 17:49-55
63 CHAPPELL D, JACOB M, HOFMANN-KIEFER K, et al. A rational approach to perioperative fluid management. Anesthesiology 2008; 109:723-40
64 CHASSOT PG, BETTEX DA. Anesthesia and adult congenital heart disease. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20: 414-37
65 CHASSOT PG, DELABAYS A, SPAHN DR. Preoperative evaluation of patients with or at risk of coronary artery disease undergoing non cardiac surgery. Brit J Anaesth 2002; 89:747-59
66 CHASSOT PG, DELABAYS A, SPAHN DR. Perioperative use of antiplatelet drugs. Best Pract Res Clin Anesthesiol 2007; 21:241-56
67 CHASSOT PG, DELABAYS A, SPAHN DR. Perioperative antiplatelet therapy: The case for continuing therapy in patients at risk of myocardial infarction. Brit J Anaesth 2007; 99:316-28
68 CHEMLA D, HEBERT JL, COIRAULT C, et al. Total arterial compliance estimated by stroke volume – to – aortic pulse pressure ratio in humans. Am J Physiol 1998; 274:H500-5
69 CHEN Q, VAZQUEZ EJ, MOGHADDAS S, et al. Production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. J Biol Chem 2003; 278:36027-31
70 CHENG D, VEGAS A. Anesthesia for the surgical management of ischemic heart disease. In: THYS DM, et al editors. Textbook of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology. New York, McGraw-Hull Co, 2001, pp 530-88
71 CHILIAN WM. Functional distribution of  and  adrenergic receptors in the coronary microcirculation. Circulation 1991; 84:2108-22
72 CHILIAN WM. Coronary microcirculation in health and disease. Summary of an NHLBI workshop. Circulation 1997; 95:522-8
73 COHEN MV. Coronary collaterals: clinical and experimental observations. Mount Kisco, New York: Futura 1985
74 COHEN MV. Myocardial ischemia is not a prerequisite for the stimulation of coronary collateral development. Am Heart J 1993; 126:847-55
75 COHEN MC, ARETZ TH. Histological analysis of coronary artery lesions in fatal postoperative myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Pathol 1999; 8:133-9
76 CONZEN PF, FISCHER S, DETTER C, PETER K. Sevoflurane provides greater protection of the myocardium than propofol in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:826-33
76a Cook S, Togni M, Schaub MC, Weneweser P, Hess OM. High heart rate: a cardiovascular risk factor ? Eur Heart J 2006; 27:2387-93
77 COOPER CJ, LANDZBERG MJ, ANDERSON TJ, et al. Role of the nitric oxide in the local regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance in humans. Circulation 1996; 93:266-71
78 CRACKOWER MA, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function. Nature 2002; 417:822-8
79 CREA F, et al. Role of adenosine in pathogenesis of anginal pain. Circulation 1990; 81:164-72
79a CREA F, LIUZZO G. Pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 61:1-11
80 CRILEY JM, BLAUFUSS AH, KISSEL KL. Cough-induced cardiac compression. JAMA 1976; 236:1246-8
81 CROZATIER B. Stretch-induced modifications of myocardial performance: from ventricular function to cellular and molecular mechanisms. Cardiovasc Res 1996;32:25-37
81a CRYSTAL GJ, SALEM MR. The Bainbridge and the “reverse” Bainbridge reflexes: History, physiology and clinical relevance. Anesth Analg 2012; 114:520-32
82 DALIENTO L, SOMERVILLE J, PRESBITERO P, et al. Eisenmenger syndrome. Factors relating to deterioration and death. Eur Heart J 1998; 19:1845-55
83 DANTZKER DR, FORESMAN B, GUTTIEREZ G. Oxygen supply and utilization relationships. Am Rev Resp Dis 1991; 143:675-9
84 DAS DK, MAULIK N. Mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes: target for cardioprotection. Curr Opinion Anesthesiol 2005; 18:77-82
85 DAVIES CT, THOMPSON MW. Aerobic performance of female marathon and male supermarathon athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occupation Physiol 1979, 41, 233-245
86 DAWOOD MM, GUPTA DK, SOUTHERN J, et al. Pathology of fatal perioperative myocardial infarction: implications regarding physiopathology and prevention. Int J Cardiol 1996; 57:35-44
87 DE HERT SG. Cardioprotection with volatile anesthetics: clinical relevance. Curr Opin Anesthesiol 2004; 17:57-62
88 DE HERT SG, BROECKE PW, MERTENS E, et al. Sevoflurane but not propofol preserves myocardial function in coronary artery patients. Anesthesiology 2002; 97: 42-9
89 DE HERT SG, CROMHEECKE S, TEN BROECKE PW, et al. Effects of propofol, desflurane and sevoflurane on recovery of myocardial function after coronory surgery in elderly high-risk patients. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:314-23
90 DE HERT SG, GILLEBERT TC, ANDRIES LG, BRUTSAERT DL. Role of the endocardial endothelium in the regulation of myocardial function. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:1354-66
91 DE HERT SG, LONGROIS D, YANG H, et al. Does the use of a volatile anesthetic regimen attenuate the incidence of cardiac events after vascular surgery ? Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 2008; 59:19-25
92 DE HERT SG, TURANI F, MATHUR S, STOWE DF. Cardioprotection with volatile anesthetics: mechanisms and clinical implications. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:1584-95
93 DE HERT S, VAN DER LINDEN PJ, CROMHEECKE S, et al. Choice of primary anesthetic regimen can influence intensive care unit length of stay after coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 2004; 101:9-20
94 DE HERT S, VAN DER LINDEN PJ, CROMHEECKE S, et al. Cardioprotective properties of sevoflurane in patients undergoing coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass are related to the modalities of its administration. Anesthesiology 2004; 101:299-310
94a DE HERT S, VLASSELAERS D, BARBE R, et al. A comparison of volatile and non volatile agents for cardioprotection during on-pump coronary surgery. Anaesthesia 2009; 64:953-60
95 DE KLAVER MJ, MANNING L, PALMER LA, RICH GF. Isoflurane pretreatment inhibits cytokine-induced cell death in cultured rat smooth muscle cells and human endothelial cells. Anesthesiology 2002; 97: 24-32
96 DEL MONTE F, et al. Improvement in survival and cardiac metabolism after gene transfer of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++-ATPase in a rat model of heart failure. Circulation 2001; 104:1424-9
97 DEL MONTE F, KAUFMANN AJ, POOLE-WILSON PA, et al. Coexistence of functioning 1- and 2-adrenoreceptors in single myocytes from human ventricle. Circulation 1993; 88:854-63
98 DEMBITSKY W. 3rd World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles & Nano-Bio. CHUV-EPFL, Lausanne, 2006
98a DENAULT AY, COUTURE P, BUITHIEU J, et al. Left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction as predictors of difficult separation from cardio-pulmonary bypass. Can J Anesth 2006; 53:1020-9
98b DENAULT AY, HADDAD F, JACOBSOHN E, et al. Perioperative right ventricular dysfunction. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2013; 26:71-81
99 DHAINAUT JF, BRUNET F, MIRA JP, FIEROBE L. Variations phasiques de la pression pleurale et fonction ventriculaire. In: SRLF - Les interactions cardio-pulmonaires. Paris : Arnette, 1994, 71-83
100 DINH-XUAN AT, HIGENBOTTAM TW, CLELLAND CA, et al. Impairment of endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation in chronic obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1539-47
101 DOLE WP. Autoregulation of the coronary circulation. Progr Cardiovasc Dis 1987; 29:293-323
102 DORINSKY PM, COSTELLO JL, GADEK JE. Relation ships of oxygen uptake and oxygen delivery in respiratory failure not due to ARDS. Chest 1988; 93:1013-19
103 DOUCETTE JW, GOTO M, FLYNN AE, et al. Effects of cardiac contraction and cavity pressure on myocardial blood flow. Am J Physiol 1993; 265:H1342-52
104 DREXLER H. Nitric oxide synthase in the failing heart: a double-edged sword ? Circulation 1999; 99:2971-5
105 DUNCKER DJ, TRAVERSE JH, ISHIBASHI Y, BACHE RJ. Effect of NO on transmural distribution of blood flow in hypertrophied left ventricle during exercise. Am J Physiol 1999; 276:H1305-12
105a DUTTA P, COURTIES G, WEI Y, et al. Myocardial infarction accelerates atherosclerosis. Nature 2012; 487:325-9
106 EBERT TJ. Autonomic balance and cardiac function. Curr Opin Anesthesiol 1992; 5:3-10
107 EL AZAAB SR, ROSSEEL PM, DE LANGE JJ, et al. Effect of sevoflurane on the ex vivo secretion of TNF-alpha during and after coronary artery bypass surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2003; 20:380-4
108 ELLIS SG, HERTZER NR, YOUNG JR, et al. Angiographic correlates of cardiac death and myocardial infarction complicating major non-thoracic vascular surgery. Am J Cardiol 1996; 77:1126-28
109 ELSASSER A, SCHLEPPER M, KLOVEKORN VP, et al. Hibernating myocardium: An incomplete adaptation to ischemia. Circulation 1997; 96:2920-31
110 EPSTEIN SE, et al. Effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on the cardiac response to maximal and submaximal exercise in man. J Clin Invest 1965; 44:1745-53
111 ESLER M, LAMBERT G, BRUNNER-LA ROCCA HP, et al. Sympathetic nerve activity and neurotransmitter release in humans: translation from pathophysiology into clinical practice. Acta Physiol Scand 2003; 177:275-84
112 FAEHRENRICH JA, HILTON AK, HAYWARD KA, et al. Respiratory variations in transmitral flow velocity: Effects of IPPV and changing tidal volume. Anesth Analg 1997; 84:SCA30(abstract)
112a FANG JC, DE MARCO T, GIVERTZ MM, et al. World Health Organization Pulmonary Hypertension Group 2: Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease in the adult – a summary statement from the Pulmonary Hypertension Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012; 31:913-33
113 FAROUQUE HMO. Effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibition on resting coronary vascular responses in humans. Circ Res 2002; 90:231-6
114 FEIHL F, BROCCARD AF. Interactions between respiration and systemic hemodynamics. Part I: basic concepts. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35:45-54
115 FEIHL F, BROCCARD AF. Interactions between respiration and systemic hemodynamics. Part II: practical implications in critical care. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35:198-205
116 FELLAHI JL, GUEX X, RICHOMME X, et al. Short-and long-term prognostic value of ppostoperative cardiac troponin I concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:270-4
117 FENELEY MP, OLSEN CO, GLOWER DD, et al. Effect of acutely increased right ventricular afterload on work output of the left ventricle in conscious dog. Circ Res 1989; 65:135-145
118 FINKEL E. The mitochondrion: is it central to apoptosis ? Science 2001; 292:624-6
119 FINKEL MS, ODDIS CV, JACOB TD, et al. Negative inotropic effects of cytokines on the heart mediated by nitric oxide. Science 1992; 257:387-9
120 FISCHER LG, VAN AH, BURKLE H. Management of pulmonary hypertension: physiological and pharmacological considerations for anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:1603-16
121 FLU WJ, VAN KUJIK JP, HOEKS SE, et al. Prognostic implications of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Anesthesiology 2010; 112:1316-24
122 FOËX P, BICCARD B. Stunning, hibernation, preconditioning, postconditioning, and the effects of anesthetic drugs. In: Howell S, et al, eds. Heart disease and the surgical patient. New York: Informa Healthcare 2007, 63-86
123 FORLANI S, TOMAI F, De PAULIS R, et al. Preoperative shift from glibenclamide to insulin is cardioprotective in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg 2004; 45:117-2
124 FRÄSSDORF J, DE HERT S, SCHLACK W. Anaesthesia and myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Br J Anaesth 2009; 103:89-98
125 FRAZIN LJ, McPHERSON DD, MEHLMAN DJ, CHANDRAN KB. Functional chiral asymmetry in the descending thoracic aorta. Circulation 1990; 82:1985-94
125a FRIEDBERG MK, REDINGTON AN. Right versus left ventricular failure: differences, similarities, and interactions. Circulation 2014; 129:1033-44
126 FRIEDERICH SO, LORELL BH, ROUSSEAU MF, et al. Intracardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves diastolic function in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy due to aortic stenosis. Circulation 1994; 90:2761-71
127 FROSTELL C, BLOMQVIST H, HEDENSTIERNA G, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide selectively reverses human hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction wuthout causing systemic vasodilatation. Anesthesiology 1993 78:427-435
128 FUCHS E MÜLLER MF, OSWALD H, et al. Cardiac rotation and relaxation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2004; 6:715-22
129 FUCHS F, WANG YP. Sarcomere length versus interfilament spacing as determinant of cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and Ca2+ binding. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1996; 28:1375-83
130 FUKUDA N, SAAKI D, ISHIVATA S, et al. Length dependence of tension generation in rat skinned cardiac muscle. Circ Res 2001; 104:1639-45
131 FUSTER V, BADIMON L, BADIMON J, CHESEBRO JH. The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and the acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:242-50
132 FUSTER V, BADIMON L, BADIMON J, CHESEBRO JH. The pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and the acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:310-18
133 FUSTER V, FAYAD ZA, BADIMON JJ. Acute coronary syndromes: biology. Lancet 1999; 353(suppl III):5-9
133a GAASCH WH, ZILE MR. Left ventricular structural remodeling in health and disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 58:1733-40
133b GALIE N, HOEPER MM, HUMBERT M, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: the Task Force for Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS), endorsed by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). Eur Heart J 2009; 30:2493-537
134 GALLEY HF, WEBSTER NR. Physiology of the endothelium. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:105-13
135 GANDEVIA SC, et al. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in man: central and reflex contributions. J Physiol 1990; 430:105-17
135a GARCIA C, JULIER K, BESTMANN L, et al. Preconditioning with sevoflurane decreases PECAM-1 expression and improves one-year cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Br J Anaesth 2005; 94:159-65
136 GEKIERE JP, VALAT P, GOSSE P, KABBANI Y, JANVIER G. Fonction diastolique ventriculaire gauche: physiologie, physiopathologie, évaluation, moyens thérapeutiques, incidence en anesthésie. Ann Fr Anesth Réanim 1998; 17:319-39
137 GEYER H, CARACCIOLO G, ABE H, et al. Assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography: Fundamentals and clinical applications. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010; 23:351-69
138 GILBERT JC, GLANTZ SA. Determinants of left ventricular filling and of diastolic pressure-volume relation. Circ Res 1989; 64:827-32
139 GIROUD D, LI JM, URBAN P, et al. Relation of the site of acute myocardial infarction to the most severe coronary arterial stenosis at prior angiography. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69:729-32
140 GIVERTS MM, COLUCCI WS, BRAUNWALD E. Clinical aspects of heart failure. In:. Zipes DP, Braunwald’s Heart Disease, 7th edition. Philadephia : Elsevier - WB Saunders Co, 2005, 539-68
141 GLOWER DD, SPRATT JA, SNOW ND, et al. Linearity of the Frank-Starling relationship in the intact heart: the concept of preload recruitable work. Circulation 1985; 71:994-1009
142 GORCSAN J, DENAULT A, MANDARINO WA, et al. Left ventricular pressure-volume relations with transesophageal echocardiography automated border detection: comparison with conductance-catheter technique. Am Heart J 1996; 131:544-52
143 GOTTLIEB S, KUKIN ML, AHERN D. Prognostic importance of atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Clin Cardiol 1989; 10:437-44
144 GOULD KL. Coronary artery stenosis. New York, Elsevier 1991, p 8
145 GRAHAM RM, PEREZ DM, HWA J, et al. -adrenergic receptor subtypes. Molecular structure, function and signaling. Circ Res 1996; 78:737-49
146 Granzier HL, LABEIT S. The giant protein titin: a major player in myocardial mechanics, signaling and disease. Circ Res 2004; 94:284-95
147 GREGG DE. Effect of coronary perfusion pressure or coronary flow on oxygen usage of the myocardium. Circ Res 1963; 13:497-500
148 GRIFFITH MJD, EVANS TW. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in adults. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:2683-95
149 GROBAN L, BUTTERWORTH J. Perioperative management of chronic heart failure. Anesth Analg 2006; 103:557-75
150 GROSSMAN W. Diastolic dysfunction in congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991; 325:1557-64
151 GROVES BMT, DROMA T, SUTTON JR, et al. Minimal hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in normal tibetans at 3’658 m. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 312-8
152 GROVES BMT, REEVES JT, SUTTON JR, et al. Operation Everest II: elevated high altitude pulmonaryresistence unresponsive to oxygen. J Appl Physiol 1987; 63: 521-30
153 GUADANGNOLI E, HAUPTMAN PJ, AYANIAN JK. et al. Variation in the use of cardiac procedures after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:573-8
154 GUARRACINO F, LANDONI G, TRITAPEPE L, et al. Myocardial damage prevented by volatile anaesthetics: A multicenter randomized controlled study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20:477-83
154a GUAZZI M, BORLAUG BA. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease. Circulation 2012; 126:975-90
155 GUTH BD, et al. Time course and mechanisms of contractile dysfunction during acute myocardial ischemia. Circulation 1993; 87(suppl IV):35-42
156 GUYTON AC, JONES CE, COLEMAN TG. Circulatory physiology: cardiac output and its regulation. Philadelphia:Saunders, 1973
157 HAAS F, JENNEN L, HEINZMANN U, et al. Ischemically compromised myocardium displays different time-courses of functional recovery: correlation with morphological alterations ? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 20:290-8
158 HABER I, METAXAS DN, GEVA T, AXEL L. Three-dimensional systolic kinematics of the right ventricle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005; 289:H1826-33
159 HADDAD F, COUTURE P, TOUSIGNANT C, DENAULT AY. The right ventricle in cardiac surgery, a perioperative perspective: I. Anatomy, physiology and assessment. Anesth Analg 2009; 108:407-21
160 HADDAD F, DOYLE R, MURPHY DJ. HUNT SA. Right ventricular function in cardiovascular disease, Part II. Pathophysiology, clinical importance and management of right ventricular failure. Circulation 2008; 117:1717-31
160a HAHN JY, SONG YB, KIM EK, et al. Ischemic postconditioning during primary percutaneous coronary ontervention. The effects of postconditioning on myocardial reperfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (POST) randomized trial. Circulation 2013; 128:1889-96
161 HAROUN-BIZRI S, KHOURY SS, CHEHAB IR, KASSAS CM, BARAKA A. Does isoflurane optimize myocardial protection during cardiopulmonary bypass? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2001; 15: 418-21
162 HARRISON DG, BATES JN. The nitrovasodilators: new ideas about old drugs. Circulation 1993; 87:1461-7
162a HATTORI K, OZAKI Y, ISMAIL TF, et al. Impact of statin therapy on plaque characteristics as assessed by serial OCT, grayscale and integrated backscatter-IVUS. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2012; 5:169-77
162c HAUSENLOY DJ, CANDILIO L, EVANS R, et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning and outcomes of cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med 2015; 373:1408-17
162b Head BP, Graham JB, Shabetai R, Lai NC. Regulation of cardiac function in the horn shark by changes in pericardial fluid volume mediated through the pericardioperitoneal canal. Fish Physiol Biochem 2001; 24:141-8
163 HEIN L, KOBILKA BK. Adrenergic receptors from molecular structure to in vivo function. Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997; 7:137
164 HEIN S, et al. Progression from compensated hypertrophy to failure in the pressure-overloaded human heart. Circulation 2003; 107:984-91
165 Helle-Valle T, CROSBY J, EDVARDSEN T, et al. New noninvasive method for assessment of left ventricular rotation. Speckle tracking echocardiography. Circulation 2005; 112:3149-56
166 HENSON RE, SONG SK, PASTOREK JS, et al. Left ventricular torsion is equal in mice and humans. Am J Physiol Heart Cric Physiol 2000; 278:H1117-H1123
167 HILL JA, OLSON EN. Cardiac plasticity. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:1370-80
167a HILLIS LD, SMITH PK, ANDERSON JL, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Executive summary. Anesth Analg 2012; 114:11-45
168 HOFFMAN JI, SPAAN JA. Pressure flow relations in coronary circulation. Physiol Rev 1990; 70:331-90
169 HOFFMEISTER HM, HELLER W, SEIPEL L. Activation markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis: alterations and predictive value in acute coronary syndrome. Thromb Haemost 1999; 82:76-9
170 HOPKINS WE, OCHOA LL, RICHARDSON GW, TRULOCK EP. Comparison of the hemodynamics and survival of adults with severe primary pulmonary hypertension or Eisenmenger syndrome. J Heart Lung Transplant 1996; 15:100-5
171 HUNT SA, ABRAHAM WT, CHIN MH, et al. 2009 focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults. Circulation 2009; 119:e391-e479
172 HUTFLESS R, KASANEGRA R, MADANI M, et al. Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in predicting postoperative complications and outcomes in patients undergoing heart surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43:1873-9
173 HUGHES JMB, GLAZIER JB, MALONEY JE, et al. Effect of lung volume on the distribution of pulmonary blood flow in man. Resp Physiol 1968; 4:58-67
174 HWANG KC, GRAY CD, SWEET WE, et al. 1-adrenergic receptor coupling with Gh in the failing human heart. Circulation 1996; 94:718-26
174a HYMEL BJ, TOWNSLEY MM. Echocardiographic assessment of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Anesth Analg 2014; 118:1197-201
175 IACCARINO G, et al. Reciprocal in vivo regulation of myocardial G-protein coupled receptor kinase expression by -adrenergic receptor stimulation and blockade. Circulation 1998; 98:1783-9
176 ICHINOSE F, ERANA-GARCIA J, HROMI J, et al. Nebulized sildenafil is a selective pulmonary vasodilator in lambs with acute pulmonary hypertension. Crit Care Med 2001; 29: 1000-5
177 ICHINOSE F, ROBERTS JD, ZAPOL WR. Inhaled nitric oxide. A slective pulmonary vasodilator. Circulation 2004; 109: 3106-11
178 IRVING TC, KONHILAS J, PERRY D, et al. Myofilament lattice spacing as a function of sarcomere length in isolated rat myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2000; 279:H2568-73
179 IWASE M, BISHOP SP, UECHI M, et al. Adverse effects of chronic endogenous sympathetic drive induced by cardiac Gsa overexpression. Circ Res 1996; 78:517-24
179a JAKOBSEN CJ, BERG H, HINDSHOLM KB, et al. The influence of propofol versus sevoflurane anesthesia on outcome in 10’535 cardiac surgical procedures. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007; 21:664-71
180 JAIN U, LAFLAMME CJA, AGGARWAL A, et al. Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic changes and their association with myocardial infarction during coronary artery bypass surgery. Anesthesiology 1997; 86:576-91
181 JALIL JE, JANICKI JS, PICK R, et al. Fibrosis-induced reduction of endomyocardium in the rat after isoproterenol treatment. Circ Res 1989; 65:258-64
182 JASON AC, CARTER C. Clinical relevance of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:1250-60
182a Jensen B, Nyengaard JR, Pedersen M, Wang T. Anatomy of the python heart. Anat Sci Int 2010; 84(4):194-203
183 JOHNS RA. Endothelium, anesthetics, and vascular control. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:1381-91
184 JOHNSTON WE, VINTEN-JOHANSEN J, SANTAMORE WP, et al. Mechanism of reduced cardiac output during positive end-expiratory pressure in the dog. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 140:1257-64
185 JULIER K, DA SILVA R, GARCIA C, et al. Preconditioning by sevoflurane decreases biochemical markers for myocardial and renal dysfunction in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:1315-27
186 KANEKO T, SAITO Y, HIKAWA Y, et al. Dose-dependent prophylactic effect of nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, on intra-operative myocardial ischaemia in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth 2001; 86:332-7
187 KASS DA, MARINO P, MAUGHAN WL, et al. Determinants of end-systolic pressure-volume relations during acute regional ischemia in situ. Circulation 1989; 80:1783-94
188 KATZ A.M. Influence of altered inotropy and lusitropy on ventricular pressure-volume loops. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988; 11:438-45
189 KAYE DM, LEFKOVITZ J, JENNINGS GL, et al. Adverse consequences of high sympathetic nervous activity in the failing human heart. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 26:1257-63
190 Kehl F, Krolikowski JG, Mraovic B, et al. Is isoflurane-induced preconditioning dose related? Anesthesiology 2002; 96: 675-80
191 KEHL F, Krolikowski JG, Mraovic B, et al. Hyperglycemia prevents isoflurane-induced preconditioning against myocardial infarction. Anesthesiology 2002; 96:183-8
192 KEMP M, DONOVAN J, HIGHAM H, HOOPER J. Biochemical markers of myocardial injury. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:63-73
193 KERBAUL F, RONDELET B, COLLART F, et al. Hypertension artérielle pulmonaire en anesthésie-réanimation. Ann Fr Anesth Réa 2005; 24:528-40
194 KERN MJ. Coronary blood flow and myocardial ischemia. In: ZIPES DP, et al. Braunwald’s Heart disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 7th edition Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005, 1103-28
195 KERN MJ, SAMADY H. Current concepts of integrated coronary physiology in the catheterization laboratory. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55:173-85
196 KERSTEN JR, SCHMELING TJ, PAGEL PS, et al. Isoflurane mimics ischemic preconditioning via activation of KATP channels. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:361-8
196a KEVIN LG, NOVALIJA E, STOWE DF. Reactive oxygen species as mediators of cardiac injury and protection: The relevance to anesthesia practice. Anesth Analg 2005; 101:1275-87
197 KILNER PJ, YANG GZ, MOHIADDIN RH, et al. Helical and retrograde secondary flow patterns in the aortic arch studied by three-directional magnetic resonance velocity mapping. Circulation 1993; 88:2235-47
197a Kilner PJ, Yang GZ, Firmin DN. Morphodynamics of flow through sinuous curvatures of the heart. Biorheology 2002; 39(3-4): 409-17
198 KIM K, DUPUY PM, STANEK K, et el. A comparison of inhaled nitric oxide and halothane as a bronchodilator in metacholine constricted guinea pigs. Anesthesiology 1992; 77:1225
199 KIMURA Y, et al. Phospholamban inhibitory function is activated by depolymerization. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:15061-4
200 KINOSHITA K, TSURUHARA Y, TOKUNAGA K. Delayed time to peak serum myoglobin level as an indicator of cardiac dysfunction following open heart surgery. Chest 1991; 99:1398-403
201 KJELDSEN SE, et al. For the LIFE study group. Effects of losartan on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. JAMA 2002; 288:1492-8
202 KLOCKE FJ. Measurements of coronary blood flow and degree of stenosis: Current clinical implications and continuing uncertainties. Newsl Council Clin Cardiol AHA 1982(3)
203 KLONER RA, et al. Consequences of brief ischemia: stunning, preconditioning, and their clinical implications. Part 1. Circulation 2001; 104:2981-9
204 KNOLL R, HOSHIJIMA M, HOFFMAN HM, et al. The cardiac mechanical stretch sensor machinery involves a Z disc complex that is defective in a subset of human dilated cardiomyopathy. Cell 2002; 111: 943-8
205 KOBILKA B. Molecular and cellular biology of adrenergic receptors. Trends Cardiovasc Med 1991; 1:189-94
206 KOLEV N, HUEMER G, ZIMPFER M. Transesophageal echocardiography. A new monitoring technique. Wien: Springer Verlag 1995, 52
207 KONSTAM MA, UDELSON JE. Right heart failure. In: Hosenpud JD, ed. Congestive heart failure. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and comprehensive approach to management. New York : Springer Verlag, 1994, 258-80
208 KOSS KL, KRANIAS EG. Phospholamban: a prominent regulator of myocardial contractility. Circ Res 1996; 79:1059-63
208a KOTTENBERG E, THIELMANN M, BERGMANN L, et al. Protection by remote ischemic preconditioning during coronary artery bypass graft surgery with isoflurane but not propofol – a clinical trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2012; 56:30-8
209 KOUREMBANAS S, MARSDEN PA, MCQUILLAN LP, FALLER DV. Hypoxia induces endothelin gene expression and secretion in cultured human endothelium. J Clin Invest 1991; 88:1054-7
210 KUBO S.H., RECTOR T.S., BANK A.J. – Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is attenuated in patients with heart failure. Circulation 1991; 84:1589-92
210a KUMAR R, CHARONKO J, HUNDLEY WG, et al. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function using 4-dimensional phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2011; 35:108-12
211 KWAK YL, LEE CS, PARK YH, et al. The effect of phenylephrine and norepinephrine in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Anaesthesia 2002; 57:9-14
212 KYRIAKIDES ZS, KOLETTIS T, ANTONIADIS A, et al. Beta-adrenergic blockade decreases coronary collateral blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiovasc Drug Ther 1998; 12:551-9
212a LA GERCHE A, BURNS AT, MOONEY DJ, et al. Exercise-induced right ventricular dysfunction and structural remodelling in endurance athletes. Eur Heart J 2012; 33:998-1006
212b LA GERCHE A, HEIDBUCHEL H. Can intensive exercise harm the heart ? You can get too much of a good thing. Circulation 2014; 130:992-1002
213 LAKE CL. Extracorporeal circulation and circulatory assist devices in the pediatric patient. In: LAKE CL. Pediatric cardiac anesthesia. Norwalk, Appleton & Lange 1993, 164-5
214 LANDESBERG G. The pathophysiology of perioperative myocardial infarction: Facts and perspectives. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003; 17:90-100
215 LANDESBERG G, LURIA MH, COTEV S. et al. Importance of long-duration postoperative ST-segment depression in cardiac morbidity after vascular surgery. Lancet 1993; 341:715-9
216 LANDESBERG G, MOSSERI M, ZAHGER D, et al. Myocardial infarction following vascular surgery: The role of prolonged, stress induced, ST-depression type ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37:1839-45
217 LANDESBERG G, SHATZ V, AKOPNIK I, et al. Association of cardiac troponin, CK-MB, and postoperative myocardial ischemia with long-term survival after major vascular surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42:1547-54
218 LANDONI G, BIONDI-ZOCCAI GGL, ZANGRILLO A, et al. Desflurane and sevoflurane in cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical rials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007; 21:502-11
219 LANG RM, BOROW KM, NEUMAN A. Systemic vascular resistance: An unreliable index of left ventricular afterload. Circulation 1986; 74:1114-8
219a LANKHAAR JW, WESTERHOF N, FAES TJC, et al. Quantification of right ventricular afterload in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2006; 291:H1731-H1737
219b LANKHAAR JW, WESTERHOF N, FAES TJC, et al. Pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance stay inversely related during treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Eur Heart J 2008; 29:1688-95
219c LAU EMT, MANES A, CELERMAJER DS, GALIE N. Early detection of pulmonary vascular disease in pulmonary arterial hypertension: time to move forward. Eur Heart J 2011; 32:2489-98
220 LAVERS C. Why elephants have big ears ? London:Phoenix, 2003
221 LAWSON CS, DOWNEY JM. Preconditioning: State of the art myocardial protection. Cardiovasc Res 1993; 27:542-50
222 Lee th, marcantonio er, mangione cm, et al. Derivation and prospective validation of a simple index for prediction of cardiac risk of major noncardiac surgery. Circulation 1999; 100:1043-9
223 Lefebvre XP, HE S, LEVINE RA, YOGANATHAN AP. Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an in vitro pulsatile flow study. J Heart Valve Dis 1995; 4:422
224 LE MANACH Y, PERREL A, CORIAT P, et al. Early and delayed myocardial infarction after abdominal aortic surgery. Anesthesiology 2005; 102: 885-91
225 LEUNG JM, HOLLENBERG M, O’KELLY BF, et al. Effects of steal-prone anatomy on intraoperative myocardial ischemia. The SPI Research Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 20:1205-12
226 LEUNG JM, O’KELLY B, BROWNER WS, et al. Prognostic importance of postbypass regional wall motion abnormalities in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Anesthesiology 1989; 71:16-23
227 LEVICK JR. An introduction to cardiovascular physiology. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995, 116-7
228 LEVICK JR. An introduction to cardiovascular physiology. 2nd edition. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995, 255-75
228a LIBBY P. Mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes and their implications for therapy. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:2004-13
229 LIBBY P, THEROUX P. Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. Circulation 2005; 111:3481-8
230 LORENZ CH, PASTOREK JS, BUNDY JM. Delineation of normal human left ventricular twist throughout systole by tagged cine magnetic resonance imaging. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2000; 2:97-108
231 LOWES BD, TSEVTKOVA T, EICHHORN EJ, et al. Milrinone versus dobutamine in heart failure subjects treated chronically with carvedilol. Int J Cardiol 2001; 81:141-9
232 LUDWIG LM, PATEL HH, GROSS GJ, et al. Morphine enhances pharmacological preconditioning by isoflurane. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:705-11
233 MAGDER S. Point/Couterpoint: The classical Guyton view that mean systemic pressure, right atrial pressure, and venous resistance govern venous return is/is not correct, J Appl Physiol 2006; 101:1523-7
234 MAGGIORINI M. Cardiopulmonary interactions at high altitude. Pulmonary hypertension as a common denominator. In: ROACH RC, ed. Hypoxia:through the lifecycle. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publisher, 2003
235 MAGNER JJ, ROYSTON D. Heart Failure. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:74-85
235a MAHAPATRA S, NISHIMURA RA, SORAJJA P, et al. Relationship of pulmonary arterial capacitance and mortality in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47:799-803
236 MAIER SE, FISCHER SE, McKINNON GC, et al. Evaluation of left ventricular segmental wall motion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with myocardial tagging. Circulation 1992; 86:1919-28
237 MALCONIAN MK, ROCK PB, REEVES JT, et al. Operation Everest II: gaz tensions in expired air and arterial blood at extreme altitude. Aviat Space Environ Med 1993; 64:37-42
238 MANGANO DT, BROWNER WS, HOLLENBERG M, et al. Association of perioperative myocardial ischemia with cardiac morbidity and mortality in men undergoing noncardiac surgery. The study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. N Engl J Med 1990; 323:1781-8
239 MARCUS JT, VONK NA, ROELEVEDL RJ, et al. Impaired left ventricular filling due to right ventricular pressure overload in primary pulmonary hypertension. Chest 2001; 119:1761-5
240 MARIAN AJ. On genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy and transgenic models. All is not crystal clear in myopathic hearts. Circ Res 2001; 89:3-5
241 MARINI CE, LODATO RF, GUTTIEREZ G. Cardiopulmonary interactions in the cardiac patient in the Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care Clin 1989; 5:533-49
242 MARKS AR, REIKEN S, MARX SO. Progression of heart failure. Is protein kinase a hyperphosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor a contributing factor ? Circulation 2002; 105:272-5
243 MARTIN SE, LENHARD SD, SCHMARKEY LS, et al. Adenosine regulates coronary blood flow during increased work ands decreased supply. Am J Physiol 1993; 264:H1438-46
244 MASERI A, FUSTER V. Is there a vulnerable plaque ? Circulation 2003; 107:2068-71
245 MASUMOTO A, HIROOKA Y, HIRONAGA K, et al. Effect of pravastatin on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease (cholesterol-independent effect of pravastatin). Am J Cardiol 2001; 88:1291-4
246 MAUBAN JRH, REMILLARD CV, YUAN JXJ. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: role of ion channels. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98:415-20
247 MAUGHAN WL, SUNAGAWA K, BURKOFF D, et al. Effect of heart rate on the canine end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. Circulation 1985; 72 (3):654-9
248 MAURIELLO A, SANGIORGI C, FRATONI S, et al. Diffuse and active inflammation occurs in both vulnerable and stable plaques of the entire coronary tree: a hisopathological study of patients dying of acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45:1585-93
248a McLAUGHLIN W, ARCHER SL, BADESCH DB et al. ACC/AHA 2009 expert consensus document on pulmonary hypertension : A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on expert consensus documents and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2009; 119:2250-94
249 McMURRAY JJV. Systolic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:228-38
249a McMURRAY JJ, ADAMOPOULOS S, ANKER SD, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart Failure. Eur Heart J 2012; 14:803-69
250 McNEE W. Pathophysiology of cor pulmonale in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Part one. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150:833-52
251 MEIER P, ZBINDEN R, TOGNI M, et al. Coronary collateral function long after drug-eluting stent implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 49: 15-20
252 MEIJBURG HWJ, VISSER CA, WESENHAGEN H, et al Transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of transmitral and transpulmonary venous flow during ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure. J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 1994; 8:386-91
253 MERIN RG. Anesthesia and the coronary circulation. Adv Anesth 1989; 6:195-218
254 MERX MW. Myoglobin facilitates oxygen diffusion. FASEB J 2001; 15:1077-9
254a MEYBOHM P, BEIN B, BROSTEANU O, et al. A multicenter trial of remote ischemic preconditioning for heart surgery. N Engl J Med 2015; 373:1397-407
255 MEYER KC, LOVE RB, ZIMMERMANN JJ. The therapeutic potential of nitric oxide in lung transplantation. Chest 1998; 113:1360-71
256 MICHARD F. Changes in arterial pressure during mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 2005; 103:419-28
257 MICHEL T, KRAMER BK, KELLY RA. Endothelial cell-derived vasoactive and inotropic paracrine factors. In: GWATHMEY JK, Ed. Heart Failure: Basic sciences and clinical aspects, 1993
258 MIGRINO RQ, YOUNG JB, ELLIS SG, et al. End-systolic volume index at 90 and 180 minutes into reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction is a strong predictor of early and late mortality. The GUSTO-I Investigators. Circulation 1997; 96:116-21
259 MIYASHIRO JK, FEIGL EO. Feed forward control of coronary blood flow via coronary -receptor stimulation. Circ Res 1993; 73:252-63
260 MOHSENIFAR Z, AMIN D, JASPER AC, et al. Dependance of oxygen consumption on oxygen delivery in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Chest 1987; 92:447-50
261 MOISES VA, MESQUITA CB, CAMPOS O, et al. Importance of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography during coronary artery surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1998; 11:1139-44
262 MONCADA S, et al. Does nitric oxide modulate mitochondrial energy generation and apoptosis ? Nat Rev 2002; 3:214-20
263 MONCADA S, PALMER R, HIGGS E. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Pharmacological Review 1991; 43:109-42
264 MONROE RG, GAMBLE WJ, LAFARGE CG. The Anrep effect reconsidered. J Clin Invest 1972; 51:2573-8
265 MOORE TD, et al. Ventricular interaction and external constraint account for decreased stroke work during volume loading in CHF. Am J Physiol 2001; 281:H2385-H2391
265a Moorman AFM, Christoffels VM. Cardiac chamber formation: development, genes, and evolution. Physiol Rev 2003; 83:1223-67
266 MORANO I. Tuning smooth muscle contraction by molecular motors. J Mol Med 2003; 81:481-7
267 MORRIS-THURGOOD JA, FRENNEAUX MP. Diastolic ventricular interaction and ventricular diastolic filling. Heart Fail Rev 2000; 5:307-23
268 MOTZ W, VOGT M, RABENAU O, et al. Evidence of endothellial dyfunction in coronary resistance vessels in patients with angina pectoris and nornal coronary angiogram. Am J Cardiol 1991; 68:996-1003
269 MOUDGIL R, MICHELAKIS ED, ARCHER SL. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98: 390-403
270 MUELLER XM, CHASSOT PG, ZHOU J, et al. Hemodynamics optimization during off-pump coronary artery bypass: the “no compression” technique. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002; 22:249-54
371 Mullenheim J, Fradorf J, Preckel B, Volker T, Schlack W. Ketamine, but not S(+)-ketamine, blocks ischemic preconditioning in rabbitt hearts in vivo. Anesthesiology 2001; 94:630-6
272 MÜNCH G, et al. SERCA 2a activity correlates with force-frequency relationship in human myocardium. Am J Physiol 2000; 278:H1924-H1932
273 MUNCH-ELLINGSEN JA, GROVER GJ, GROSS GJ. Blockade of KATP channel by glibenclamide aggravates ischemic injury and counteracts ischemic preconditionning. Basic Res Cardiol 1996; 91:382-53
274 MUNT B, JUE J, GIN K, et al. Diastolic filling in human severe sepsis: an echocardiographic study. Crit Care Med 1998; 26:1829-33
275 MURGO JP, WESTERHOF N. Arterial reflections and pressure waveforms in humans. In: YIN FCP, ed. Ventricular/vascular coupling. Clinical, physiological and engineering aspects. New York: Springer Verlag, 1987, 140-58
276 MURRY CE, JENNINGS RB, REIMER KA. Preconditionning with ischemia: A delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium. Circulation 1986; 74:1124-36
276a MUSTAFA HI, FESSEL JP, BARWISE J, et al. Dysautonomia. Anesthesiology 2012; 116:205-15
277 NABEL EG, SELWYN AP, GANZ P. Paradoxical narrowing of atherosclerotic coronary arteries induced by increases in heart rate. Circulation 1990; 81:850-9
278 NAGHAVI M, LIBBY P, FALK E, et al. From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient. A call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies. Part I. Circulation 2003; 108:1664-72
279 NAGHAVI M, LIBBY P, FALK E, et al. From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient. A call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies. Part II. Circulation 2003; 108:1772-8
280 NALYSNYK L, FAHRBACH K, REYNOLDS MW, ZHAO SZ, ROSS S. Adverse events in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) trials: a systematic review and analysis. Heart 2003; 89:767-72
281 NASHEF SAM, ROQUES F, MICHEL P, et al. European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1999; 16:9-13
282 NATHAN HJM. Coronary physiology. In: KAPLAN JA ed. Cardiac anesthesia. Philadelphia, WB Saunders 1993, 235-60
283 NICCOLI G, BURZOTTA F, GALIUTO L. Myocardial no-reflow in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54:281-92
284 NISHIMURA RA, HOUSMANS PR, HATLE LK, TAJIK AJ. Assessment of diastolic function of the heart: Background and current application of Doppler echocardiography. Part I: physiologic and pathophysiologic features. Mayo Clin Proc 1989; 64:71-81
285 NISHIMURA RA, HOUSMANS PR, HATLE LK, TAJIK AJ. Assessment of diastolic function of the heart: Background and current application of Doppler echocardiography. Part II: clinical studies. Mayo Clin Proc 1989; 64:181-204
286 NOHRIA A, LEWIS E, STEVENSON LW. Medical management of advanced heart failure. JAMA 2002; 287:628-40
287 OECHSLIN E. Eisenmenger’s syndrome. In: Gatzoulis MA, Webb GD, Daubeney PEF, Eds. Diagnosis and management of adult congenital heart disease. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone 2003, pp 363-77
288 OH JK, HATLE LK, SEWARD JB, et al. Diagnostic role of Doppler echocardiography in constrictive pericarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 23:154-62
289 OLIVETTI G, MELISSARI M, CAPASSO JM, et al. Cardiomyopathy of the aging human heart. Myocyte loss and reactive cellular hypertrophy. Circ Res 1991; 68:1560-8
290 OPIE LH. Heart Physiology. From cell to circulation. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 648 pp
291 O’Rourke MF, SAFAR ME. Relationship between aortic stiffening and microvascular disease in brain and kidney. Cause and logic of therapy. Hypertension 2005; 46:200-4
292 O’ROURKE MF, YAGINUMA T. Wave reflections and the arterial pulse. Arch Int Med 1984; 144:366-71
293 O’ROURKE MF, YAGINUMA T, AVOLIO AP. Physiological and pathophysiological implications of ventricular/vascular coupling. Ann Biomed Eng 1984; 12:119-34
294 PACKER M, COATS AJS, FOWLER MB, et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1651-8
294a PAGEL PS. Myocardial protection by volatile anesthetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A critical review of the laboratory and clinical evidence. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013; 27:972-82
295 PAGEL PS, GROSSMANN W, HAERING M, WARLTIER DC. Left ventricular diastolic function in the normal and diseaesed heart. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:836-54 (Part I) et 79:1104-20 (Part II)
296 PALEVSKY HI, SCHLOO BL, PIETRA CC, et al. Primary pulmonary hypertension: Vascular structure, morphometry, and responsiveness to vasodilator agents. Circulation 1989; 80:1207-21
297 PATTERSON DJ. Nitric oxide and the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability. Exp Physiol 2001; 86:1-9
297a PAULUS WJ, TSCHÖPE C. A novel paradigm for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:263-71
298 PAULUS WJ, TSCHÖPE C, SANDERSON JE, et al. How to diagnose diastolic heart failure: A consensus statement on the diagnosis of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction by the Heart Failure and Echocardiographic Associations of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2007; 28:2539-50
299 PEARSON PJ, LIN PJ, SCHAFF HV. Production of endothelium-derived contracting factor is enhanced after coronary reperfusion. Ann Thorac Surg 1991; 51:788-93
299a PEDRIZZETTI G, LA CANNA G, ALFIERI O, TONTI G. The vortex – an early predictor of cardiovascular outcome ? Nat Rev Cardiol 2014; 11:545-53
300 PEPPER MS. Manipulating angiogenesis: from basic science to the bedside. Arterioscl Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17:605-19
301 PETERS J, KINDRED MK, ROBOTHAM JL. Transient analysis of cardiopulmonary interactions. I. Diastolic events. J Appl Phsiol 1988; 64:1506-617
302 PETERS J, KINDRED MK, ROBOTHAM JL. Transient analysis of cardiopulmonary interactions. II. Systolic events. J Appl Phsiol 1988; 64:1518-26
303 Pettersen E, HELLE-VALLE T, EDVARDSEN T, et al. Contraction pattern of the systemic right ventricle. J Am Coll cardiol 2007; 49:2450-6
304 PIJLS NH, BECH GJ, EL GAMAL MI, et al. Quantification of recruitable coronary collateral blood flow in conscious humans and its potential to predict future ischemic events. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 25;1522-8
305 PINSKY MR. Cardiovascular issues in respiratory care. Chest 2005; 128:592S-7S
306 PINSKY DJ, PATTON S, MESAROS S, et al. Mechanical transduction of nitric oxide synthesis in the beating heart. Circ Res 1997; 81:372-6
307 PIRIOU V, CHIARI P, KNEZYNSKI S, et al. Prevention of isoflurane-induced preconditioning by 5-hydroxydecanoate Gadolinium. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:756-64
307a PIRIOU V, MANTZ J, GOLDFARB G, et al. Sevoflurane preconditioning at 1 MAC only provides limited protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomised bi-centre trial. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99:624-31
308 PITT B, ZANNAD F, REMME WJ, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:709-17
309 POLAERT JIT, VISSER CA, EVERAERT JA, et al. Doppler evaluation of right ventricular outflow impedance during positive-pressure ventilation. J Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 1994; 8:392-97
310 POLDERMANS D, BOERSMA E BAX JJ, et al. Correlation of location of acute myocardial infarct after non-cardiac vascular surgery with preoperative dobutamine echocardiographic findings. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88:1413-4
311 PORT JD, BRISTOW MR. Altered beta-adrenergic receptor gene regulation and signalling in chronic heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2001; 33:887-905
312 POST SR, HAMMOND HK, INSEL PA. -adrenergic receptors and receptor signalling in heart failure. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1999; 39:343-60
313 PRASAD A, STONE GW, HOLMES DR, GERSH B. Reperfusion injury, microvascular dysfunction, and cardioprotection. Circulation 2009; 120:2105-12
314 PRATT PF, WANG C, WEIHRAUCH D, et al. Cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics: new applications for old drugs ? Curr Opin Anesthesiol 2006; 19:397-403
315 PREISMAN S, KOGAN S, BERKENSTADT H, PEREL A. Predicting fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: functional haemodynamic parameters including the Respiratory Systolic Variation Test and static preload indicators. Br J Anaesth 2005; 95:746-55
316 PRIEBE HJ. Triggers of perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. Brit J Anaesthesiol 2004; 93:9-20
317 PRIEBE HJ. – Mechanisms of perioperative myocardial injury. In: Howell S, et al, eds. Heart disease and the surgical patient. New York: Informa Healthcare 2007, 39-61
318 RABINOVITCH M, HAWORTH SG, CASTANEDA AR, et al. Lung biopsy in congenital heart disease: a morphometric approach to pulmonary vascular disease. Circulation 1978; 58:1007-22
319 RAHIMTOOLA SH. The hibernating myocardium. Am Heart J 1989; 117:211-21
320 RAMAKRISHNA G, SPRUNG J, RAVI BS, et al. Impact of pulmonary hypertension on the outcomes of noncardiac surgery: predictors of perioperative morbidity and mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45:1691-9
321 RAPP HJ, RABETHGE S, LUIZ T, et al. Perioperative ST-segment depression and troponin T release. Identification of patients with highest risk for myocardial damage. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999; 43:124-9
322 REDWOOD CS, et al. Properties of mutant contractile proteins that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res 1999; 44:20-36
323 REIZ S, BALFORS E, SORENSEN MB, et al. Isoflurane: A powerful coronary vasodilator in patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology 1983; 59:91-7
324 REMILLARD CV, YUAN JX. High altitude pulmonary hypertension: role of K” and Ca2+ channels. High Alt Biol Med 2005; 6:133-46
325 RICH S, ed. Primary pulmonary hypertension: Executive summary from the World Symposium – Primary pulmonary hypertension 1998. http//
326 RICH GF, JOHNS RA. Nitric oxide and the pulmonary circulation. Advances in Anaesthesia 1994; 11:1-25
327 RICH S, McLAUGHLIN VV. Pulmonary hypertension. In: ZIPES DP, et al, eds. Braunwald’s heart disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005, 1807-42
328 RICHALET JP, GRATADOUR P, ROBACH P, et al. Sildenafil inhibits altitude-induced hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2004; 171:275-81
329 RIDKER PM, RIFAI N, ROSE L, et al. Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediciton of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1557-65
330 RITTER O, et al. Calcineurin in human heart hypertrophy. Circulation 2002; 105:265-9
331 ROBERTSON D, HOLLISTER AS, FORMAN MB, et al. Reflexes unique to myocardial ischaemia and infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985; 5:99-104
332 ROBOTHAM JL. Cardio-pulmonary interactions: new insights, new directions. In SRLF - Les interactions cardio-pulmonaires. Paris : Arnette, 1994, 159-67
333 ROBOTHAM JL, SCHARF SM. Effects of positive and negative pressure ventilation on cardiac performance. Clinics in Chest Medicine 1983; 4:161-87
334 ROBOTHAM JL, TAKATA M, BERMAN M, et al. Ejection fraction revisited. Anesthesiology 1991; 74:172-83
335 ROSS R. Atherosclerosis – an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999: 340:115-26
336 ROSS S, FOEX P. Protective effects of anaesthetics in reversible and irreversible ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82(4):622-32
337 ROSSAINT R, FALKE KJ, LOPEZ F, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide in adult respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 1993; 228:399-405
338 ROTH DM, GAO MH, LAI C, et al. Cardiac-detected adenyl cyclase expression improves heart function in murine cardiomyopathy. Circulation 1999; 99: 3099-104
339 ROWELL LB, BRENGELMANN GL, BLACKMON JR, et al. Disparities between aortic and peripheral pulse pressures induced by upright exercise and vasomotor changes in man. Circulation 1968; 37:954-64
340 RUBANYI G, ROMERO J, VANHOUTTE P. Flow-induced release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Am J Physiol 1986; 250:H1145-H1149
341 SAGAWA K, MAUGHAN L, SUGA H, et al. Cardiac contraction and the pressure-volume relationship. New York, Oxford University Press, 1988
342 SAITO S, MIZUMURA T, TAKAYAMA T, et al. Antiischemic effects of nicorandil during coronary angioplasty in humans. Cardiovasc Drug Ther 1995; 9(suppl 2):257-63
343 SAKAI S, MIYAUCHI T, KOBAYASHI M, et al. Inhibition of myocardial endothelin pathway improves long-term survival in heart failure. Nature 1996; 384:353-5
344 SANTAMORE WP, GRAY L. Significant left ventricular contributions to right ventricular function. Mechanisms and clinical implications. Chest 1995; 107:1134-45
345 SARTORI C, ALLEMANN Y, SCHERRER U. Pathogenesis of pulmonary edema: Learning from high-altitude pulmonary edema. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 2007; 159:338-49
346 SCHIFFRIN EL. Endothelin: potential role in hypertension and vascular hypetrophy. Hypertension 1995; 25:1135-43
347 SCHARHAG J, et al. Athlete’s heart. Right and left ventricular mass and function in male endurance athletes and untrained individuals deterrmined by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40:1856-63
348 SCHMIDT C, HINDER F, VAN AKEN H. Global left ventricular systolic function. In: Poelaert J, Skarvan K. Transoesophageal echocardiography in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. London: BMJ Books, 2004, 62
349 SCHMIDT-NIELSEN K. Animal physiology. Adaptation and environment. 5th edition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 91-125
350 SCHUMACKER PT, SAMSEL RW. Oxygen delivery and uptake by peripheral tissues: physiology and pathophysiology. Critical Care Clinics 1989; 5:255-69
351 SCHUSTER DP, CROUCH EC, PARKS WC, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme expression in primary pulmonary hypertension, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:1087
352 SEARS CE, et al. Cardiac neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoform regulates myocardial contraction and calcium handling. Circ Res 2003; 92:e57-e59
353 SELWYN AP, KINLAY S, CREAGER M, et al. Cell dysfunction in atherosclerosis and the ischemic manifestations of coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79:17-23
354 Sengupta PP. Exploring left ventricular isovolumic shortening and stretch mechanics : « The heart has its reasons… » J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2009; 2:212-5
355 SENGUPTA PP, KORINEK J, BELOHLAVEK M, et al. Left ventricular structure and function. Basic science for cardiac imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48:1988-2001
356 SENGUPTA PP, KRISHNAMOORTHY VK, KORINEK J, et al. Left ventricular form and function revisited: Applied translational science to cardiovascular ultrasound imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007; 20:539-51
357 SENGUPTA PP, NARULA J. Reclassifying heart failure : Predominantly subendocardial, subepicardial and transmural. Heart Failure Clin 2008 ; 4 :379-82
358 SENGUPTA PP, TAJIK AJ, CHANDRASEKARAN K, KHANDHEIRIA BK. Twist mechanics of the left ventricle. Principles and application. J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2008; 1:366-76
359 SESSO HD, et al. Physical activity and coronary artery disease in man. Circulation 2000; 102:975-80
359a SHADWICK RE. Mechanical design in arteries. J Experiment Biol 1999; 202:3305-13
360 SHAN R, BICK RJ, POINTDEXTER DJ, et al. Altered adrenergic receptor density in myocardial hibernation in humans: A possible mechanism of depressed myocardial function. Circulation 2000; 102:2599-606
361 SHAPIRO BP, CHEN HH, BURNETT JC, et al. Use of brain natriuretic peptide to aid in the diagnosis of heart failure. Mayo Clin Proc 2003; 78:481-6
362 SHIBUTANI T, KOMATSU T, KUBAL K, et al. Critical level of oxygen delivery in anesthetized man. Crit Care Med 1983; 11:640-3
363 SIGG DC, COLES JA, GALLAGHER WJ, et al. Opioid preconditioning: Myocardial function and energy metabolism. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 72:1576-82
363a Simões-Costa MS, Vasconcelos M, Sampaio AC, et al. The evolutionary origin of cardiac chambers. Develop Biol 2005; 277:1-15
364 SIMONEAU G, ROBBINS IM, BEGHETTI M, et al. Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54:S43-S54
364a SIMONEAU G, GATZOULIS MA, ADAIA I,, et al. Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:S34-D41
365 SKARVAN K. Ventricular performance. In: PRIEBE HJ, ed. Cardiovascular physiology. London, BMJ books, 1995, 25-61
365a Sláma K. A new look at the comparative physiology of insect and human hearts. J Insect Physiol 2012; 58:1072-81
366 Slaughter MS, ROGERS JG, MILANO CA, et al. Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:2241-51
367 SMITH TP, CANTY JM. Modulation of coronary autoregulatory responses by nitric oxide. Evidence for flow dependent resistance adjustments in conscious dogs. Circulation 1993; 73:232-40
368 SMITH VE, KATZ AM. Inotropic end lusitropic abnormalities in the genesis of heart failure. Eur Heart J 1983; 4(Suppl A):A7-17
369 SMITH VE, SCHULMAN P, KARIMEDDINI MK, et al. Rapid ventricular filling in left ventricular hypertrophy: II: Pathologic hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985; 5:869-74
370 SNIECINSKI R, LIU H. Reduced efficacy of volatile anesthetic presconditioning with advanced age in isolated rat myocardium. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:589-97
371 SOLARO RJ. Modulation of cardiac myofilament activity by protein phosphorylation. In: PAGE E, et al, eds. Handbook of physiology. Section 2: the cardiovascular system. New York Oxford University Press, 2002, 264-300
372 SOLARO RJ, RARICK HM. Troponin and tropomyosin: Proteins that switch on and tune in the activity of cardiac myofilaments. Circ Res 1998; 83: 471-6
373 SOWERS JR. Hypertension, angiotensin II and oxidative stress. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:1999-2001
374 SPAHN DR, CHASSOT PG. Con. Fluid restriction for cardiac patients during major noncardiac surgery should be replaced by goal-directed intravascular fluid administration. Anesth Analg 2006; 102:344-6
375 SPOTNITZ HM. Macro design, structure and mechanics of the left ventricle. J Thorac Cardiuovasc Surg 2000; 119:1053-77
376 STALCUP SA, MELLINS RB. Mechanical forces producing pulmonary edema in acute asthma. N Engl J Med 1977; 297:592-6
376a STEVENS GR, GARCIA-ALVAREZ A, SAHNI S, et al. RV dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension is independently related to pulmonary artery stiffness. JACC Cardiovasc Inaging 2012; 5: 378-87
377 STRAUER BE. Left ventricular dynamics, energetics and coronary hemodynamics in hypertrophied heart disease. Eur Heart J 1983; 4(suppl A):137-42
378 STUBER M SCHEIDEGGER MB, FISCHER SE, et al. Alterations in the local myocardial motion pattern in patients suffering from pressure overload due to aortic stenosis. Circulation 1999; 100:361-8
379 SUBRAMANIAM K, YARED JP. Management of pulmonary hypertension in the operating room. Semin Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 2007; 11:119-36
380 SUGIISHI M. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for coronary spasm. Circulation 1993; 87:76-9
381 SUKO JL, et al. An elastic ling between lenfth and active force production in myocardium. Circulation 2001; 104:1585-7
382 SUNAGAWA K, SAGAWA K, MAUCHAN WL. Ventricular interaction with the vascular system in terms of pressure-volume relationships. In: YIN FCP, ed. Ventricular/vascular coupling. Clinical, physiological and engineering aspects. New York: Springer Verlag, 1987, 210-39
383 SWAMI A, SPODICK DH. Pulsus paradoxus in cardiac tamponade: A pathophysiological continuum. Clin Cardiol 2003; 26:215-7
383a SWAMINATHAN M, NICOARA A, PHILLIPS-BUTE BG, et al. Utility of a simple algorithm to grade diastolic dysfunction and predict outcome after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2011; 91:1844-51
384 SYMONS JA, MYLES PS. Myocardial protection with volatile anaesthetic agents during coronary artery bypass surgery: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 2006; 97:127-36
385 TANAKA H, et al. Aging, habitual exercise and dynamic arterial compliance. Circulation 2000; 102:1270-5
386 TANAKA K, LUDWIG NM, KERSTEN JR, PAGEL PS, WARLTIER DC. Mechanisms of cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:707-21
387 TAKATA M, BELOUCIF S, SHIMADA M, ROBOTHAM JL. Superior and inferior vena caval flows during respiration: pathogenesis of Kussmaul’s sign. Am J Physiol 1992; 262:H763-H770
388 TAKATA M, ROBOTHAM JL. Ventricular external constraint by the lung and pericardium during positive end-expiratory pressure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 143:872-5
389 TAKATA M, ROBOTHAM JL. Effects of inspiratory diaphragmatic descent on inferor vena caval venous return. J. Appl. Physiol. 1992; 72:597-607
390 TAKATA M, WISE RA, ROBOTHAM JL. Effects of abdominal pressure on venous return: abdominal vascular zone conditions. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69:1961-72
390a THIELMANN M, KOTTENBERG E, KLEINBONGARD P, et al. Cardioprotective and prognostic effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: a single-centre randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2013; 382:597-604
390b THUNY F, LAIREZ O, ROUBILLE F, et al. Post-conditioning reduces infarct size and edema in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 59:2175-81
390c THYGESEN K, ALPERT JS, WHITE HD. Universal definition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50:2173-95
391 TOLLER WG, STRANZ C. Levosimendan, a new inotropic and vasodilator agent. Anesthesiology 2006; 104:556-69
392 TOMANEK RJ, SEARLS JC, LACHENBRUCH PA. Quantitative changes in the capillary bed during developping, peak and stabilized cardiac hypertrophy in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Cric Res 1982; 51:295-304
393 TORRENT-GUASP F. Sobre morfologia y funcionalismo cardiacos. Rev Esp Cardiol 1967; 20:1-10
394 TORRENT-GUASP F, BALLESTER M, BUCKBERG GD, et al. Spatial orientation of the ventricular muscle band: Physiologic contribution and surgical implications. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001; 122:389-92
395 TORRENT-GUASP F, KOCICA MJ, CORNO A, et al. Systolic ventricular filling. Eur J Cardiothor Surg 2004; 25:376-86
396 TORRENT-GUASP F, KOCICA MJ, CORNO A, et al. Towards new understanding of the heart structure and function. Eur J Cardiothor Surg 2005; 27:191-201
397 TOZZI G. 3rd World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles & Nano-Bio. CHUV-EPFL, Lausanne, 2006
398 TÜLLER C, NICOD LP. Hypertension pulmonaire chronique. Forum Méd Suisse 2008; 8:812-7
398a VACHIÉRY JL, ADIR Y, BARBERÀ JA, et al. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:D100-8
399 VAGO T, BEVILACQUA M, NORBIATOR G. Identification of an adrenergic receptors on sarcolemma from normal subjects and patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ Res 1989; 64:474-81
400 VAN DER LINDEN PJ. Cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetics in cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:516-7
401 VANE JR, ANGGARD EE, BOTTING RM. Regulatory functions in the vascular endothelium. N Engl J Med 1990; 323:27-34
402 VASAN RS, LARSON MG, BENJAMIN EJ, et al. Congestive heart failure in subjects with normal versus reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: prevalence and mortality in a population-based cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 33:1948-55
403 VASAN RS, LARSON MG, LEIP EP, et al. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1291-7
404 VEGAS A, MEINERI M. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography is a major advance for intraoperative clinical management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A core review. Anesth Analg 2010; 110:1548-73
405 VERGROESEN I, KAL JE, VAN WEZEL HB. Coronary vasodilating drug effects or normal coronary blood flow regulation ? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1998; 12:450-6
406 vieilard-baron a, michard f, chemla d. Définitions et rappels physiologiques concernant les determinant du statut volémique. Réanimation 2004; 13:264-7
407 VINCENT JL, ROMAN A, DEBACKER D, et al. Oxygen uptake/supply dependency. Effects of short-term dobutamine infusion. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142:2-6
407a VON HOMEYER P, SCHWINN DA. Pharmacogenomics of -adrenergic receptor. Physiology and response to -blockade. Anesth Analg 2011; 113:1305-18
407b VONK-NOORDEGRAAF A, HADDAD F, CHIN KM, et al. Right heart adaptation to pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:D22-33
408 VROOM MB. Epidemiology and pharmacotherapy of acute heart failure. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003; 7:3-12
409 WACHTELL K, et al. Change in diastolic left ventricular filling after one year of antihypertensive treatment. Circulation 2002; 105:1071-6
410 Wahl gw, feins rh, aqlfieres g, et al. Reinfusion of shed blood after coronary operation causes elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 53:625-31
411 WATANABE J, LEVINE MJ, BELLOTTO F, et al. Effects of coronary venous pressure on left ventricular distensibility. Circ Res 1990; 67:923
412 WAYPA GB, SCHUMACKER PT. Hypoxic pulonary vasoconstriction: redox events in oxygen sensing. J Appl Physiol 2005; 98:404-14
413 WEBER KT, JALIL JE, JANICKI JS, et al. Myocardial collagen remodeling in pressure overload hypertrophy. Am J Hypertension 1989; 2:931-40
414 WEG JG. Oxygen transport in adult respiratory distress syndrome and other acute circulatory problems: relation ship of oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. Critic Care Med 1991; 19:650-7
414a WEINER MM, REICH DL, LIN HM, et al. Influence of increased left ventricular myocardial mass on early and late mortality after cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 2013; 110:41-6
415 WEST JB, DOLLERY CT. Distribution of blood flow and the pressure-flow relations of the whole lung. J Appl Physiol 1965; 19:713
416 WHITE MF, et al. The insulin signalling system. J Biol Chem 1994; 269:1-4
417 WHITE HD, NORRIS RM, BROWN MA, et al. Left ventricular end-systolic volume as the major determinant of survival after recovery from myocardial infarction. Circulation 1987; 76:44-9
418 WIER WG, EGAN TM, LOPEZ-LOPEZ JR, et al. Local control of excitation-contraction coupling in rat heart cells. J Physiol 1994; 474:463-71
419 WIGGERS CJ. Modern aspects of circulation in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1915
420 WRIGHT G. Mechanical simulation of cardiac function by means of pulsatile blood pumps. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1997; 11:299-309
421 WU LA, NISHIMURA RA. Pulsus paradoxus. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:666
421a XUE F, YANG X, ZHANG B, et al. Postconditioning the human heart in percutaneous coronary intervention. Clin Cardiol 2010; 33:439-44
422 YANAGISAWA M, KURIHARA H, KIMURA S, et al. A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature 1988; 332:411-5
423 YASTREBOV K. Intraoperative management: carotid endarterectomies. Anesthesiol Clin N Am 2004; 22:265-87
424 YEAGER MP, FILLINGER MP, HETTLEMAN BD, et al. Perioperative beta-blockade and late cardiact outcomes: A complementary hypothesis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005; 19:237-41
425 YELLIN EL, HORI M, YORAN C, et al. Left ventricular relaxation in the filling and non-filling intact canine heart. Am J Physiol 1986; 250:H620-H629
425a YELLON DM, HAUSENLOY DJ. Myocardial reperfusion injury. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1121-35
425b YOUNG AA, COWAN BR. Evaluation of left ventricular torsion by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2012; 14:49
425c YU CH, BEATTIE WC. The effects of volatile anaesthetics on cardiac ischemic complications and mortality in CABG: A meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth 2006; 53:906-18
426 ZAUGG M, LUCHINETTI E, SPAHN DR, et al. Differential effects of anesthetics on mitochondrial KATP channel activity and cardiomyocyte protection. Anesthesiology 2002; 97:15-23
427 Zaugg M, Luchinetti E, Uecker M, Pasch T, Schaub MC. Anaesthetics and cardiac preconditioning: signaling and cytoprotective mechanisms. Part I. Brit J Anaesth 2003 ; 91:551-65
428 ZAUGG M, SCHAUB MC. Cellular mechanisms in sympatho-modulation of the heart. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:34-52
429 ZAUGG M, SCHAUB MC, FOËX P. Myocardial injury and its prevention in the perioperative setting. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:21-33
430 ZEMA MJ, MASTERS AP, MARGOULEFF D. Dyspnea: the heart or the lungs ? Differentiation at bedside by use of the simple Valsalva maneuver. Chest 1984; 85:59-64
431 ZHANG C. Divergent roles of angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors in modulating coronary microvascular function. Circ Res 2003; 92:322-9
432 ZHAO HW, WU AS, LIU Y, et al. Assessment of right ventricular function by pressure-volume loops in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Chin Med J 2008; 121:932-8
433 ZILE MR, BRUTSAERT DL. New concept in diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure: Part I. Diagnosis, prognosis, and measurement of diastolic function. Circulation 2002; 105:1387-93
434 ZILE MR, SMITH VE. Relaxation and diastolic properties of the heart. In: FROZZARD H.A, ed. The heart and cardiovascular system, Scientific Foundations, 2nd edition. New York, Raven Press, 1991, pp 1353-1367
435 ZIPES DP, WELLENS HJ. Sudden cardiac death. Circulation 1998; 98:2334-51
436 ZUCKER IH, CORNISCH KG. The Bezold-Jarisch reflex in the conscious dog. Circ Res 1981; 49:940-8